Search results

1 – 10 of 10
Article
Publication date: 12 August 2022

Chunqing Li, Wenhua He and Hong Sheng

The main purpose of this study is to summarize the key literature about research on customer experience, understand the evolution of research hotspots in this research…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this study is to summarize the key literature about research on customer experience, understand the evolution of research hotspots in this research field, build a general theoretical framework on customer experience research and finally point out directions for future research in customer experience.

Design/methodology/approach

Using CiteSpace V software which is a scientific measurement tool, this study conducts a systematic analysis of relevant literature on customer experience, and develops a general framework of customer experience research based on analysis of time-zone of citations and time-line visual knowledge map of keywords.

Findings

Based on the results of the authors’ analysis, this study found that customer experience research mainly includes the following three research areas: (1) Research on the definition and extension of customer experience; (2) Research on the influencing factors of customer experience: from both enterprise perspective and customer perspective; (3) Research on the outcomes and consequences of customer experience. The authors also analyzed the research methods used in customer experience research and found that quantitative research method based on regression model was most commonly used. Finally, the authors identified gaps in the current literature and put forward the directions for future research from four aspects: to further the understanding of the concept of customer experience; to identify more relevant influencing factors of customer experience; to explore the outcomes and consequences of customer experience; and to diversify research methods in customer experience research.

Originality/value

Overall, this study not only provides an important reference for further research in the field of customer experience, but also offers important insights to the practice.

Details

Journal of Contemporary Marketing Science, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-7480

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 January 2022

Wei Yang, Afshin Firouzi and Chun-Qing Li

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the applicability of the Credit Default Swaps (CDS), as a financial instrument, for transferring of risk in project finance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the applicability of the Credit Default Swaps (CDS), as a financial instrument, for transferring of risk in project finance loans. Also, an equation has been derived for pricing of CDS spreads.

Design/methodology/approach

The debt service cover ratio (DSCR) is modeled as a Brownian Motion (BM) with a power-law model fitted to the mean and half-variance of the existing data set of DSCRs. The survival probability of DSCR is calculated during the operational phase of the project finance deal, using a closed-form analytical method, and the results are verified by Monte Carlo simulation (MCS).

Findings

It is found that using the power-law model yields higher CDS premiums. This in turn confirms the necessity of conducting rigorous statistical analysis in fitting the best performing model as uninformed reliance on constant time-invariant drift and diffusion model can erroneously result in smaller CDS spreads. A sensitivity analysis also shows that the results are very sensitive to the recovery rate and cost of debt values.

Originality/value

Insufficiency of free cash flow is a major risk in the toll road project finance and hence there is a need to develop innovative financial instruments for risk management. In this paper, a novel valuation method of CDS is proposed assuming that DSCR follows the BM stochastic process.

Details

Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-4387

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2007

Desheng Chen, Chunqing Li, Xianjie Xu and Jiasu Lei

This paper analysises China’s optimal scale of foreign reserve during 1985‐2004 with single ratio and synthesis ratio. The single ratio analysis shows that China’s foreign…

Abstract

This paper analysises China’s optimal scale of foreign reserve during 1985‐2004 with single ratio and synthesis ratio. The single ratio analysis shows that China’s foreign reserve to import ratio has exceeded 40 per cent after foreign exchange rate united in 1994. The foreign reserve to money supply ratio is high as 23.8 per cent, and will exceed 25 per cent of international alertness in 2005. The foreign reserve to debt ratio largely exceeded 30 per cent of international alertness. The current account balance to GDP ratio and the current account balance plus FDI to GDP ratio is out of international alertness in most years. The synthesis ratio analysis show that China’s real foreign exchange reserve exceeded foreign exchange demand of debt, FDI and import during 1996‐2004, and the exceeded ratio is close to 90 per cent in 2004. This paper also discusses influence of capital flight after 1995 and international hot money after 2002 to China’s optimal scale of foreign exchange.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 November 2020

Yujia Ge, Caiyun Cui, Chunqing Zhang, Yongjian Ke and Yong Liu

To test a social-psychological model of public acceptance of highway infrastructure projects in the Chinese architecture/engineering/construction industry.

Abstract

Purpose

To test a social-psychological model of public acceptance of highway infrastructure projects in the Chinese architecture/engineering/construction industry.

Design/methodology/approach

Through a comprehensive literature review, we established a social-psychological model of public acceptance related to benefit perception, risk perception and public trust. We empirically validated our model by using structural equation model analysis based on a questionnaire survey in the S35 Yongjin Highway Infrastructure Project in Yunnan Province, China.

Findings

Benefit, trust and risk perception had a significant influence on local residents' public acceptance of highway infrastructure projects; benefit perception and trust perception had a greater influence than risk perception. Public acceptance among local male residents over the age of 35 or those with higher education levels was more likely to be determined by the relative dominance of risk and benefit perceived.

Research limitations/implications

This study contributes empirical evidence to the theoretical literature related to locally unwanted land use (LULU) siting and stakeholders in the field of project management from the public perspective. This study also suggests valuable practical implications to authorities, project managers and the public in decision-making and risk communication.

Originality/value

Although previous studies addressed factors affecting public acceptance towards potentially hazardous facilities, understanding of the implications of these social-psychological factors and their effects are still far from sufficient. This study bridges this gap by exploring the determinants of public acceptance towards highway infrastructure projects based on a selected case in China.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 28 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Wei Liu, Yanhong Tian, Lei Yang, Chunqing Wang and Lining Sun

The purpose of this paper is to investigate oxidation and the Au‐Sn reaction of laser reflowed (LR) micro‐solder joints when different protective atmospheres were applied.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate oxidation and the Au‐Sn reaction of laser reflowed (LR) micro‐solder joints when different protective atmospheres were applied.

Design/methodology/approach

A N2 atmosphere at room temperature, 60°C, 100°C and 130°C, or an air atmosphere at room temperature were utilized in this study. The solder balls were composed of Sn‐2.0Ag‐0.75Cu‐3.0Bi, and 120 μm in diameter. The surface finish of one pad of the joints was 4.0 μm Au/0.1 μm NiFe/0.01 μm Ta, another pad was made of Cu plated with 3.0 μm Au. The laser reflow process time was controlled to within 10 ms. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) was used to identify the oxidation condition of LR solder joints with or without protection from a N2 atmosphere at room temperature. The appearance and cross‐sections of the joints protected by a N2 atmosphere at different temperatures were evaluated using SEM analysis.

Findings

Oxidation of LR solder joints from an air atmosphere was extremely severe, and the surfaces of solder were rough as compared with joints protected by a N2 atmosphere. Au‐rich phases and needle‐like AuSn4 intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed at the interfaces of the solder and the pads. As the temperature of the N2 atmosphere was increased above 100°C, almost all of the Au‐rich phases disappeared. More needle‐like AuSn4 IMCs formed at the interfaces, as compared with that in joints protected by a N2 atmosphere at room temperature and 60°C. In addition, the orientation of the IMCs had clearly changed.

Originality/value

The results may provide a guide for controlling oxidation and the Au‐Sn reaction of micro‐solder joints during the LR process, and improving the properties of joints between solder and pads with Au surface finishes, by regulating the protective atmosphere.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Wei Liu, Rong An, Chunqing Wang and Yanhong Tian

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of typical morphologies of Au-Sn IMCs (intermetallic compounds) at the interfaces of solder and pads on shear…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of typical morphologies of Au-Sn IMCs (intermetallic compounds) at the interfaces of solder and pads on shear properties of laser reflowed micro-solder joints.

Design/methodology/approach

Sn-2.0Ag-0.75Cu-3.0Bi (SnAgCuBi) solder balls (120 μm in diameter), pads with 0.1, 0.5, 0.9 or 4.0 μm thickness of Au surface finish, and different laser input energies were utilized to fabricate micro-solder joints with Au-Sn IMCs having different typical morphologies. The joints were performed by a shear test through a DAGE bond test system. Fracture surfaces of the joints were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry to identify fracture modes and locations.

Findings

Morphologies of Au-Sn IMCs would affect shear properties of the joints remarkably. When needle-like AuSn4 IMCs formed at the interfaces of solder and pads, almost entire surfaces presented the manner of ductile fracture. Moreover, shear forces of this kind of solder joints were higher than those of joints without Au-Sn IMCs or with a nearly continuous/continuous Au-Sn IMCs layer. The reason was that the shear performance of the solder joints with needle-like AuSn4 IMCs was enhanced by an interlocking effect between solder and needle-like AuSn4 IMCs. As a nearly continuous or continuous Au-Sn IMCs layer formed, the fracture surfaces presented more character of brittle than ductile fracture. However, if an Au layer still remained under Au-Sn IMCs, the shear performance of the joints would be enhanced.

Originality/value

The results in this study can be used to optimize microstructures and shear properties of laser reflowed micro-solder joints.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 July 2022

Changzheng Gao, Juepin Hou and Jian Gong

Abundance of cultural resources is a typical feature of traditional villages. It is particularly important to explore the development path of traditional villages from the…

Abstract

Purpose

Abundance of cultural resources is a typical feature of traditional villages. It is particularly important to explore the development path of traditional villages from the perspective of cultural resources.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on symbiosis theory, establish a symbiotic development mechanism of traditional village characteristic cultural elements and use grey relation analysis (GRA) to evaluate the resource advantages of different cultural attributes. This paper proposes the traditional village development model of different symbiotic units in the county. An empirical study is conducted in conjunction with the national historical and cultural city of Xunxian County, Henan, China.

Findings

The results show that (1) according to the different attributes of humanistic cultural resources, artificial cultural resources and natural cultural resources in traditional villages, different symbiotic units can be divided, and advantageous resources can be shared through the symbiotic interface; (2) using GRA to calculate the grey relational degree between cultural resources sequence of different attributes and the sum of cultural resources sequence in the county and define as the active degree of humanistic culture, the inheritance degree of artificial culture and the integrity of natural cultural resources are shown to reflect the status of the inheritance of humanistic cultural resources, the existence of artificial cultural resources, and the protection of natural cultural resources; and (3) a comparative analysis of the active degree, inheritance, and integrity of each symbiotic unit leads to the proposal of three symbiotic models of folklore vitality, characteristic space, and natural ecology, all of which are beneficial to promote the formation of a symbiotic environment.

Originality/value

The main innovation of this paper is to put forward the research scale of symbiosis theory in the field of urban and rural planning at the county level, delimit the symbiosis units of traditional villages at the county level, complete the quantitatively evaluate cultural resources in different symbiotic units with GRA, revealing the symbiotic development mechanism of cultural resources characteristic elements in traditional villages.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 June 2020

Valeriu Dragan, Oana Dumitrescu, Ion Malael and Adrian Daniel Azoitei

Turboshaft engines usually include one centrifugal compressor due to its high-pressure ratio, stability and compactness. Many designers rely on positive raking to decrease…

93

Abstract

Purpose

Turboshaft engines usually include one centrifugal compressor due to its high-pressure ratio, stability and compactness. Many designers rely on positive raking to decrease tip gap flow and therefore losses. However recent optimization studies revealed geometries contradicting this canonic view. Hence, this paper aims to investigate how the rake angle alone can influence performance and to which extent.

Design/methodology/approach

A turboshaft representative impeller was chosen and altered for null and +/−30° rake angles. Menter's shear stress transport model is used for steady computational fluid dynamics simulations, sweeping the nominal speedline at various tip clearances. Backsweep distribution is identical in all cases, isolating rake influence.

Findings

Pressure ratio was lowered for the both positively and negatively raked blades, but through distinct aerodynamic mechanisms. Although the flow through the tip gap was lower for the positive rake, this is due to lower blade loading. Splitter comparison reveal that these effects are more pronounced in the radial regions.

Practical implications

Some of the findings may extend beyond turboshaft engines, into turbochargers, home appliances or industrial blowers. However, all extrapolations must consider specific differences between these applications. Turboshaft compressors designers can benefit from this study when setting up their free parameters and penalty functions in the early concept stages.

Originality/value

Only few similar studies can be found in the literature to date, none similar to turboshaft applications. Also, this impeller is designed to eliminate leading edge shocks and suction side boundary layer separation, which makes it easier to isolate the tip gap flow effects. The authors also provide a framework on which semi-empirical design equations can be further developed to incorporate rake into 1D design tools.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 92 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Roman Kolenak

This paper aims to investigate the effect of solder alloying with a small amount of La and Y on bond formation with the Si and Cu substrates.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effect of solder alloying with a small amount of La and Y on bond formation with the Si and Cu substrates.

Design/methodology/approach

Bi2La and Bi2Y solders were studied. Soldering was performed using a fluxless method in air and with ultrasonic activation.

Findings

It was found that in the process of ultrasonic soldering, the La and Y were distributed at the interface with Si and Cu substrates, which enhanced the bond formation. Addition of La or Y elements in a Bi-based solder also ensured wetting of non-metallic materials such as Si, Al2O3 and SiC ceramics.

Originality/value

The addition of lanthanides offers a method for ensuring wetting of non-metallic materials. The bond with Si was of an adhesive character without the formation of a new contact interlayer. This resulted in lower shear strength of the bond with Si (8-10 MPa). The shear strength of the bond with a Cu substrate was 22-30 MPa.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 February 2008

Andreas R. Fix, Wolfgang Nüchter and Jürgen Wilde

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the microstructural development of SnAgCu solder joints under different loading conditions (isothermal storage, thermal cycling…

1853

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the microstructural development of SnAgCu solder joints under different loading conditions (isothermal storage, thermal cycling and vibration).

Design/methodology/approach

The observed microstructural changes have been studied with respect to grain growth and grain refinement, crack formation and crack growth. The growth kinetics of the intermetallic phases encountered as particles in the bulk as well as a reaction layer on the copper pad, were studied in the temperature range of 125‐175°C.

Findings

Dynamic recrystallisation of the tin matrix leads to a change in the diffusion controlled growth mechanism, which causes an increase of the particle growth rate compared to isothermal storage. Thus, these grain boundaries are separated forcibly by crack growth during thermal cycling. This stress causes intergranular cracks while vibration stress induces transgranular cracks.

Originality/value

The paper adds insight into microstructural changes of lead‐free solder joints during long‐term ageing, thermal cycling and vibration fatigue.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

1 – 10 of 10