There are a number of reference works that present man's past — or certain periods of it — in outline, tabular or sequential form, arranged chronologically to show the continuity and relationships among historical events in different parts of the world. An historical chronology can show, for example, what happened around the world in 1783, 1309 or 41 B.C. Some historical chronologies focus on a few centuries, while others try to record the major (and often minor) accomplishments of men and women from earliest times to the present day. Some chronologies focus on political and military affairs, other emphasize cultural developments, while still others attempt to combine both political and cultural events into a single panoramic timeline of human history. This review will look at some of the better‐known historical chronologies that focus on more than one country. For each, the scope, format, strengths, special features, and any recognizable bias will be examined, in the hope that the reader will gain a better understanding of these chronologies and their possible applications in reference work.
Using local historical data, the purpose of this paper is to compile a chronology of high‐magnitude snow avalanches to illustrate the effectiveness of information…
Using local historical data, the purpose of this paper is to compile a chronology of high‐magnitude snow avalanches to illustrate the effectiveness of information published in newspapers in assisting the management of natural hazards.
Major transportation lines parallel the southern boundary of Glacier National Park, Montana, USA, an area where snow avalanches occur frequently and occasionally block transportation corridors. A 1986 study presented an avalanche chronology for the study area based on information collected from the 1946 to 1982 issues of a local weekly newspaper. We extend that existing data set here by using the same newspaper, recording avalanche occurrences and impacts reported in the newspaper from 1982 to 2005.
The newly updated chronology is presented, with trends and temporal patterns for the entire 1946‐2005 data set analyzed. A decrease in reported avalanches, from the 1960s onward, is noted. Additionally, reported avalanches shifted from occurring most frequently in February to January in the last 20 years.
The results of this research illustrate the use of newspaper reports as an inexpensive, but effective, way to compile a chronology of high‐magnitude snow avalanches. This research method tends to underreport smaller magnitude events that do not affect the transportation linkages.
Snow avalanche managers could use this method to compile a chronology of events when other, more traditional techniques, are not available or too expensive.
This paper uses a rarely utilized but inexpensive and widely available data source to construct a 59‐year avalanche chronology in an area constantly threatened by snow avalanches.
The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive background on the recent legislative, regulatory, and prosecutorial scrutiny of mutual funds and underlying issues…
The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive background on the recent legislative, regulatory, and prosecutorial scrutiny of mutual funds and underlying issues such as the level and transparency of fees and costs, distribution and sales practices, and fund governance.
Provides a detailed chronology of events since January 2003 concerning mutual fund scandals such as trading abuses and questionable sales practices and related issues such as revenue sharing, directed brokerage, soft dollars, market timing, late trading, and selective disclosure. The chronology in this issue of JOIC will be followed an article in the next issue that describes reform initiatives that have taken place in response to the scandals.
Despite criticism and scrutiny of equity mutual funds following poor performance in 2001 and 2002, meaningful efforts to achieve reform began to lose momentum in mid‐2003. Then concern with mutual fund abuses was reignited in September 2003 when New York Attorney General Eliot Spitzer announced a settlement with Canary Capital that involved market timing, late trading, and selective disclosure. Since then there have been numerous disclosures of fund trading abuses and questionable trading practices, and the resulting uproar has triggered significant efforts to reform the manner in which funds and their service providers conduct business.
This comprehensive chronology provides an essential reference by bringing together all the events and underlying issues related to mutual fund scandals, abuses, regulation, compliance, and reform efforts since January 1, 2003.
Several official institutions (NBER, OECD, CEPR, and others) provide business cycle chronologies with lags ranging from three months to several years. In this paper, we…
Several official institutions (NBER, OECD, CEPR, and others) provide business cycle chronologies with lags ranging from three months to several years. In this paper, we propose a Markov-switching dynamic factor model that allows for a more timely estimation of turning points. We apply one-step and two-step estimation approaches to French data and compare their performance. One-step maximum likelihood estimation is confined to relatively small data sets, whereas two-step approach that uses principal components can accommodate much bigger information sets. We find that both methods give qualitatively similar results and agree with the OECD dating of recessions on a sample of monthly data covering the period 1993–2014. The two-step method is more precise in determining the beginnings and ends of recessions as given by the OECD. Both methods indicate additional downturns in the French economy that were too short to enter the OECD chronology.