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Purpose – Crime, criminals, the criminal justice system, and criminal justice system actors have traditionally occupied a prominent place in popular media. Comic books and…
Purpose – Crime, criminals, the criminal justice system, and criminal justice system actors have traditionally occupied a prominent place in popular media. Comic books and graphic novels are no exception to this trend. Despite this, these media have received comparatively little attention from criminal justice scholars. This chapter seeks to explore the depiction of crime and justice in modern-era comic books and graphic novels.
Methodology/approach – Content analysis techniques were used to examine 166 individual comic books from the modern age (mid-1980s to present), including those compiled in graphic novel form. Particular emphasis was placed on issues of crime control and due process.
Findings – Clear criminal justice themes were seen across the sample, including an emphasis on crime control and crime prevention. Further, comic books featuring the individual characters of Superman and Batman portrayed opposing conceptions of justice, such as justified/unjustified use of force and a willingness to follow or break the law.
Research limitations – This research represents an exploration of the depiction of crime-related themes in comic books and graphic novels, but is by no means definitive. It would be useful to extend this research by examining other eras in comic book history as well as other comic book characters and publishing companies.
Practical implications – The public's perceptions of the criminal justice system ultimately affect societal views of the legitimacy of the system. Since legitimacy is a requisite for compliance, it is important to understand factors that may influence these perceptions. These may include comic books, graphic novels, and other popular media.
Originality/value of paper – Comic books stories and themes have long reflected the times. However, it is unclear how crime and the criminal justice system are portrayed in the comic book world. This chapter is an attempt to fill a gap in the extant literature by examining this often neglected form of popular media.
Increasingly, two key trends – value‐ and cost‐conscious customers, and globalization of markets and supply sources – are shifting the competitive focus from the…
Increasingly, two key trends – value‐ and cost‐conscious customers, and globalization of markets and supply sources – are shifting the competitive focus from the competitive advantage of firms to competitive advantages of entire supply chains. At the same time, the possibilities for flexibility and coordination inherent in modern information and communication technologies are making it possible to design and follow a much greater variety of organization and governance strategies for delivering customer value. Contributes primarily to the development of general principles for ICT‐enabled redesign of supply chains. Rather than examine the individual impact and design implications of each new ICT innovation, proposes principles of abstraction that can be used to frame supply‐chain redesign options and decisions. Concludes with how these principles lead to flexibility in the design of various supply chain options, thereby providing cost and value advantages for the supply chain.
This paper uses as its focus the traditional U.K. retail industry at a time when competition from newer channels is increasing. Research into other industry sectors has…
This paper uses as its focus the traditional U.K. retail industry at a time when competition from newer channels is increasing. Research into other industry sectors has proven that well planned and executed customer relationship management strategies can increase profitability by improving customer loyalty. Many areas of the retail sector appeared to have neglected the benefits of CRM strategies, and where attempts have been made to implement CRM one or more of the vital constituents - employees, customers and shareholders have been neglected. The true barriers to CRM implementation are often thought to be financial or technological, according to research into other industry sectors. In reality however, financial and technological barriers are less problematic than organisational change, cultural and people barriers. The results of the retail survey carried out by the researchers support their original idea that few sectors of the traditional UK retail industry have implemented CRM strategies, and those that have are still are the early stages in the cycle. The survey questioned retailers on 3 main areas - The Company; IT Strategy and Future Strategy. Results for each for area are presented and change implications are discussed.
Over the years we have reported prosecutions where the defence has alleged, and with circumstantial support that the presence of a harmful foreign body in food was deliberate through the action of a single disgruntled employee or where the labour relations climate generally has been bad. It makes no difference to the manufacturer's responsibility—the offence is an absolute one—but occasionally courts have allowed it in mitigation. Sometimes, it has been the nature of the extraneous material, e.g. fragments of glass or metal, the like of which did not exist in the factory premises or plant. This may be taken as a symptom of the vandalism of the age, but more recently, two incidents have drawn attention to its dangers and provided a glimpse of the criminal mind which can inflict such injury on employers, and expose innocent consumers, of all ages, to possible harm.