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This volume of the International Perspectives on Education and Society series examines the development of the World Bank's Education Strategy 2020 1 (http://www.worldbank.org/educationstrategy2020). The Executive Summary of this strategy is reprinted in this volume for easy reference. Prior to the release of the Education Strategy 2020, a World Bank concept note was developed and consultations about the new strategy took place around the world. To document and analyze this process of education strategy development by the World Bank, this volume brings together a diverse array of voices and responses to the Bank's strategy for education in the developing world. As discussed in the introductory chapter, this volume primarily focuses on the World Bank's strategy development, and attempts to bridge the dichotomy between critics and advocates by providing relevant scholarship to influence both the World Bank's practice and the research and critiques that focus on the Bank's education strategies, policies and activities. The unique character of this volume is that it follows a significant shift in the World Bank's education policy as it was taking place and immediately following its development by using the unique approach of simultaneously documenting and analyzing the Education Strategy 2020 development.
The World Bank's Education Strategy 2020 is the latest in a line of education-related strategies focused on supporting economic development in countries worldwide through…
The World Bank's Education Strategy 2020 is the latest in a line of education-related strategies focused on supporting economic development in countries worldwide through systematic and targeted educational reform. Yet, the Bank has many critics and a history of developing educational policies that do as much to create inequality in education as to develop it. This chapter introduces the theme of the volume by focusing on the link between the World Bank's education strategy development and poverty reduction. The key emphasis of this volume is the development of the Bank's Education Strategy 2020 and how it is shaped by empirical evidence, contextualized by national and regional variations in education and the economy, and the legacy of World Bank educational involvement. This introductory chapter concludes by summarizing the ways in which each of the volume's chapters contribute to this theme, and suggests how the debates related to the Bank's education strategies and policies can move forward and contribute to educational improvement, economic development, and poverty reduction worldwide.
Education is fundamental to development and growth. Access to education, which is a basic human right enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the United…
Education is fundamental to development and growth. Access to education, which is a basic human right enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, is also a strategic development investment. The human mind makes possible all other development achievements, from health advances and agricultural innovation to infrastructure construction and private sector growth. For developing countries to reap these benefits fully—both by learning from the stock of global ideas and through innovation—they need to unleash the potential of the human mind. And there is no better tool for doing so than education.
The African continent is filled with a textured history, vast resources, and immense opportunity. The landscape of higher education on such a diverse continent is…
The African continent is filled with a textured history, vast resources, and immense opportunity. The landscape of higher education on such a diverse continent is extensive and complex. In this review of the landscape, four primary topics are evaluated. The historical context is the foundational heading, which briefly covers the evolution from colonization to independence and the knowledge economy. The second main heading builds upon the historical context to provide an overview of the numerous components of higher education, including language diversity, institutional type, and access to education. A third section outlines key challenges and opportunities including finance, governance, organizational effectiveness, and the academic core. Each of these challenges and opportunities is interconnected and moves from external influences (e.g., fiscal and political climate) to internal influences (e.g., administrative leadership and faculty roles). The last layer of the landscape focuses on leveraging higher education in Africa for social and economic progress and development. Shaping a higher education system around principles of the public good and generating social benefits is important for including postsecondary institutions in a development strategy.
This chapter examines World Bank publications, including publicized reports and widely disseminated policy statements like the World Development Reports, as well as the…
This chapter examines World Bank publications, including publicized reports and widely disseminated policy statements like the World Development Reports, as well as the plans and appraisals of two specific operations in Indonesia. Based on this examination, the author suggests that characterizations which emphasize the Bank's intransigence or celebrate its responsiveness fail to provide a satisfactory description of country-level education policy evolution. The chapter begins with two of the major theoretical frameworks that have been used to study the Bank's work in education. This is followed by a summary of the evolution of the Bank's involvement in education at the international level. The third part of this chapter analyzes two educational reforms that the World Bank has promoted in Indonesia in the last 10 years – programs advancing vocational education and decentralization – and examines how these priorities have been affected by local context and demands and shifts in the global discourse on education. The author concludes that the World Bank's role in the diffusion of education reform is best understood from a world culture perspective but that its interests – and the interests of its primary shareholders – are advanced in particularly opportune moments like democratic transitions.
The history of empire, conquest, and the role of the university occurs at the confluence of White supremacy and anti-Blackness. Knowledge is classified not only in texts…
The history of empire, conquest, and the role of the university occurs at the confluence of White supremacy and anti-Blackness. Knowledge is classified not only in texts but also through images, artwork, and even statues—all of which are found on university campuses around the world. The production of knowledge is uniquely tied to power through empire, belief systems, and economy. When universities house knowledge that is rooted in a Eurocentric view of the world and are situated in Black and Brown communities in the global South, they function as conflicted carriers of White dominance. This is evidenced via monuments, statues, physical architecture, curricula, language of instruction, and codes of conduct which all serve as indicators that the university stands at the nexus of empire maintenance and the cultures they invaded. This chapter includes case studies in three regions of the world: South Africa, Brazil, and Oceania (particularly Australia and New Zealand). The ways in which universities are both complicit actors in invasion as well as byproducts make the examination of universities as carriers of White dominance a global and complex project. This historical and contemporary examination provides an in-depth view of university participation in global White dominance through a tenacious and lasting global anti-Black sentiment.