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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Christopher J. Griffith, Linda M. Jackson and Ryk Lues

The purpose of this paper is to assess elements of food safety management and food safety culture within a prominent South African entertainment, hotel and food service complex.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess elements of food safety management and food safety culture within a prominent South African entertainment, hotel and food service complex.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper a qualitative case study approach was used. Following a comprehensive literature review, based on factors known to be important in developing a food safety culture, in combination with national and international food safety standards, an interview guide was constructed and utilised in a series of semi-structured interviews. The interviewees represented different management levels involved in food delivery but did not include board level managers.

Findings

Many of the factors considered important in good food safety management, including the presence of a formal food safety policy and the creation and maintenance of a positive food safety culture, were absent. Although a formal system of internal hygiene auditing existed and food safety training was provided to food handlers they were not integrated into a comprehensive approach to food safety management. Food safety leadership, communication and support were considered deficient with little motivation for staff to practise good hygiene.

Originality/value

Food safety culture is increasingly recognised as a contributory factor in foodborne disease outbreaks and is the focus of increasing research. However, although every food business has a unique food safety culture there are relatively few published papers concerning its analysis, application and use within specific businesses. This case study has identified food safety culture shortcomings within a large food service facility suggesting there was a potentially significant food safety risk and indicates ways in which food safety could be improved and the risk reduced. The results also suggest further work is needed in the subject of food safety culture and its potential for reducing foodborne disease.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2018

Ayman Safi Abdelhakim, Eleri Jones, Elizabeth C. Redmond, Christopher J. Griffith and Mahmoud Hewedi

The purpose of this paper is to explore the evaluation of cabin crew food safety training using the Kirkpatrick model.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the evaluation of cabin crew food safety training using the Kirkpatrick model.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a snowballing technique, 26 cabin crew, managers, supervisors and trainers participated in in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Summative content analysis was used to evaluate the data.

Findings

In total, 26 respondents from 20 international airlines participated in the study. All respondents agreed that evaluating cabin crew food safety/hygiene issues is important in relation to in-flight food handling; for example, “Training evaluation helps in the improvement of the future training”; “We have an end of course feedback form, either done electronically or on paper and that looks at how the delegates felt the training went, if they came away learning something new, if the environment for learning was right, all sorts of things; the questionnaire is quite comprehensive”; and “Every trainee is given a feedback form to complete”. However, significant failures in food safety training and its evaluation were identified.

Research limitations/implications

The evaluation of cabin crew food safety training shows that it is ineffective in some aspects, including learning achieved and behavioural change, and these can directly impact on the implementation of food safety practices. Evaluation failures may be due to the lack of available time in relation to other cabin crew roles. Further research may consider using a larger sample size, evaluating training effectiveness using social cognition models and assessments of airline and cabin crew food safety culture.

Originality/value

This is the first study that evaluates cabin crew food safety training using the Kirkpatrick model. The findings provide an understanding of the current evaluation of cabin crew food safety training and can be used by airlines for improving and developing effective future food safety training programmes. This, in turn, may reduce the risk of passenger and crew foodborne disease.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2004

Elizabeth C. Redmond, Christopher J. Griffith, Jenny Slader and Tom J. Humphrey

The use of an observational approach in conjunction with isolation techniques for campylobacter and salmonella detection has facilitated a detailed evaluation of the risk…

Abstract

The use of an observational approach in conjunction with isolation techniques for campylobacter and salmonella detection has facilitated a detailed evaluation of the risk of cross contamination during food preparation. Identification of suspected exposure routes has linked naturally contaminated raw foods with important food‐handling malpractices, contaminated contact surfaces and ready‐to‐eat foods. In a model domestic kitchen, 29 per cent of food preparation sessions resulted in positive campylobacter isolations from prepared salads, cleaning materials and food‐contact surfaces. Typing results showed that specific campylobacter strains isolated from prepared chicken salads were the same as the strains isolated from the raw chicken pieces, indicating microbial transfer during food preparation. Data obtained from this study can be used for exposure assessment, risk management and in the development of consumer risk communication strategies.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 106 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1998

Sarah F. Mott, Gene S. Feder, Christopher J. Griffiths and Sheila M. Donovan

The East London Clinical Guidelines Project aims to improve clinical effectiveness by disseminating locally developed guidelines linked to research evidence to inner city…

Abstract

The East London Clinical Guidelines Project aims to improve clinical effectiveness by disseminating locally developed guidelines linked to research evidence to inner city primary health care teams. Practice‐based educational sessions combined with audit are offered to help practices implement the guidelines. This paper reports on the baseline and one‐year audit results following facilitation and implementation of coronary heart disease guidelines.

Details

Journal of Clinical Effectiveness, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-5874

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Denise Worsfold and Christopher J. Griffith

Describes a survey of food safety training for staff in the retail, care and catering industry. Training provisions were evaluated against the guidance in the relevant…

Abstract

Describes a survey of food safety training for staff in the retail, care and catering industry. Training provisions were evaluated against the guidance in the relevant industry guides. Additional information was collected on the managers’ perceptions of and attitudes towards hygiene training. The extent and level of training of the retail butchers, who had to comply with the licensing regulations, was better than care homes and caterers of an equivalent size. Some of the care homes were not compliant with the training requirements of the Food Safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulations. There was a similar lack of hygiene management systems in most of the catering businesses in this study but senior staff were better trained and were able to provide in‐house training to greater effect. All the businesses carried out on‐the‐job training, although in some this was restricted to induction training, the content of which was often ill defined. There was a lack of documented hygiene procedures, reinforcement strategies and very little refresher training activity. Many managers failed to provide feedback on performance, to test hygiene knowledge or praise good hygienic performance. Half of the managers were not trained to train, and often were untrained in elementary hygiene themselves. Some managers recognised that conditions in the workplace and time pressures could contribute to poor hygiene performances.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Christopher J. Griffith

For nearly 150 years the study of food safety has been dominated by a microbiological approach, however, in many countries cases of foodborne disease are at record levels…

Abstract

Purpose

For nearly 150 years the study of food safety has been dominated by a microbiological approach, however, in many countries cases of foodborne disease are at record levels. The purpose of this paper is to review the history of food safety and present a model for studying food safety.

Design/methodology/approach

The history of food safety is reviewed. Data from outbreak investigations and observational studies of food handling are analysed

Findings

Whilst micro‐organisms are a major factor in foodborne disease and microbiology an important research discipline, in order to reduce the incidence of foodborne disease additional research approaches should be used. Such strategies should include food handler behaviour and its links with food safety organisational culture, and food safety management systems.

Practical implications

The findings highlight the limitations of the present approach and the need for additional data, using a wider range of research techniques

Originality/value

A novel model for studying food safety is presented, which has practical implications for reducing the economic and social burden of foodborne disease.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 108 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Christopher J. Griffith

Abstract

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 107 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2004

Deborah A. Clayton and Christopher J. Griffith

Observations of food handlers’ practices have many uses. Describes the use of a notational analysis technique to monitor and analyse specific food safety actions of…

Abstract

Observations of food handlers’ practices have many uses. Describes the use of a notational analysis technique to monitor and analyse specific food safety actions of caterers. A total of 115 food handlers from 29 catering businesses were observed carrying out 31,050 food preparation and hygiene actions in their workplace. Notational analysis was found to offer little advantage, compared to traditional observation methods. However, this technique did allow tracking of sequential events and was successful in identifying and recording a greater number of cross‐contamination events than would have been highlighted using traditional approaches. The results demonstrated that, based on hygiene guidelines, food handlers were required to implement de‐contamination actions on a large number of occasions. These de‐contamination actions were frequently inadequately conducted. To improve standards of food hygiene in catering there is a need to minimise the requirements for de‐contamination activities thereby reducing the potential for cross‐contamination.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 106 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

Elizabeth C. Redmond and Christopher J. Griffith

The purpose of this research is to aim to use observation, linked to quantitative risk‐based scoring, to evaluate the effectiveness of a small‐scale consumer food safety…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to aim to use observation, linked to quantitative risk‐based scoring, to evaluate the effectiveness of a small‐scale consumer food safety initiative based on the social marketing approach. Evaluation of intervention effectiveness is considered to be an important component of any health education initiative. The ultimate goal for social marketing initiatives is sustained behavioural change. Thus, when determining the effectiveness of community‐based social marketing interventions, direct measurement of behaviour is advocated.

Design/methodology/approach

A small‐scale food safety strategy using targeted interventions was piloted in a geographical test community in South Wales, UK. Targeted consumers from the community prepared a set meal in a model domestic kitchen before, immediately after, and 4‐6 weeks after implementation of the strategy. Observations of meal preparations were made using CCTV and food‐handling behaviours were recorded and assessed using a risk‐based scoring system. A quantitative evaluation of overall and specific food safety behaviours was made, and an effect size analysis provided a measure of potential intervention effectiveness.

Findings

This pilot study suggested that “one‐off” food safety interventions developed and implemented using a social marketing approach may result in a short‐term improvement of consumer food safety behaviours. Interventions targeting specific food safety behaviours may produce a “halo effect” upon other food safety behaviours that are known, yet not consistently implemented during domestic food preparation. Intervention effect was greater immediately after implementation of the strategy than 4‐6 weeks later. Use of the risk‐based scoring system and observation techniques were effective for assessing food hygiene behaviours and evaluating the effectiveness of interventions.

Originality/value

The use of an observational risk‐based approach to assess consumer food safety behaviours can provide a valuable tool for evaluation of the estimated immediate and long‐term effectiveness of food safety interventions on a small scale prior to launch of a larger initiative.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 108 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2003

Deborah A. Clayton, Christopher J. Griffith and Patricia Price

Utilises social cognition models to determine the beliefs, attitudes and knowledge of consumers towards food safety. The main aim was to determine the underlying factors…

Abstract

Utilises social cognition models to determine the beliefs, attitudes and knowledge of consumers towards food safety. The main aim was to determine the underlying factors influencing consumers’ implementation of specific food safety practices in the home. The research was conducted in two stages. First, salient beliefs of 100 consumers towards food safety were obtained using open‐ended questions. Second, the food handling practices of 40 consumers were observed and their food safety attitudes and knowledge determined using structured questionnaires. Disparities were shown between participants’ knowledge of specific hygiene practices and their implementation of these practices. Participants demonstrated a lack of and/or inadequate implementation of a number of hygiene practices, including a lack of handwashing, poor hand‐washing technique and inadequate cleaning of surfaces. The results suggest measures of perceived behavioural control, perceived barriers and perceived risk may provide developers of food safety intervention materials with more useful information compared with measures of knowledge or intention.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 105 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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