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Margaret Flynn and Bridget Penhale
What insights might attending to the cyclical history of colonially imposed environmental change experienced by Indigenous peoples offer to critical intellectual projects…
What insights might attending to the cyclical history of colonially imposed environmental change experienced by Indigenous peoples offer to critical intellectual projects concerned with race? How might our understanding of race shift if we took Indigenous peoples' concerns with the usurpation and transformation of land seriously? Motivated by these broader questions, in this chapter, I deploy an approach to the critical inquiry of race that I have tentatively been calling anticolonial environmental sociology. As a single iteration of the anticolonial environmental sociology of race, this chapter focuses on Native (American) perspectives on land and experiences with colonialism. I argue that thinking with Native conceptualizations of land forces us to confront the ecomateriality of race that so often escapes sight in conventional analyses. The chapter proceeds by first theorizing the ecomateriality of race by thinking with recent critical theorizing on colonial racialization, alongside Native conceptualizations of land. To further explicate this theoretical argument, I then turn to an historical excavation of the relations between settlers, Natives, and the land in Rhode Island that is organized according to spatiotemporal distinctions that punctuate Native land relations in this particular global region: the Reservation, the Plantation, and the Narragansett.
Ngozi Okoye and Juliana Siwale
There have been various forms of regulatory intervention by the central banks of countries to streamline microfinance activities and ensure effective corporate governance…
There have been various forms of regulatory intervention by the central banks of countries to streamline microfinance activities and ensure effective corporate governance of microfinance institutions (MFIs). Considering the limited amount of research in this area and the need to ensure regulatory effectiveness, the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of regulatory provisions on the attainment of effective corporate governance in MFIs in Nigeria and Zambia.
Interviews were conducted with regulators at the Central Bank of Nigeria and the Bank of Zambia, directors and executive management officers of MFIs and executives of apex associations of MFIs in both countries.
The paper presents five significant findings which are that the regulations have enabled negative outcomes in areas such as board composition, the ownership requirements in the regulations have resulted in differing governance implications, the certification requirements for board members are problematic in practice, supervision by regulators is ineffective and has impacts on risk management and the principle of consultation with stakeholders is inadequate in both countries.
Regulatory provisions must be robust and fit for purpose to ensure the microfinance initiative in emerging economies achieves the objectives of enhancing financial inclusion and economic development of the society.
The paper addresses an area of limited research and provides empirical findings in relation to regulation and corporate governance in developing economies, which would help to ensure regulatory effectiveness.