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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Christopher E.C. Gan, David A. Cohen, Baiding Hu, Minh Chau Tran, Weikang Dong and Annie Wang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact that several of these factors have on a consumer’s decision to hold a credit card, as well as those involved in…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact that several of these factors have on a consumer’s decision to hold a credit card, as well as those involved in determining the level of credit card limit.

Design/methodology/approach

Potential explanatory variables were identified in the literature, then used to build a binary logit model to test the impact of the card and consumer characteristics on credit card ownership. Data were collected via a structured interview of 409 consumers living in Hebei Province, China.

Findings

The results indicate that convenience in use, level of credit card interest rates, the application process, number of people in the household, a rewards programme, marital status, credit limit and age influence the likelihood of the respondent holding a credit card. Further, an anaylsis shows that the number of credit cards held, duration of holding a credit card, monthly credit card purchasing volume and having a degree at the tertiary level, are significantly and positively related to different levels of credit limit.

Originality/value

In summary, in order to attract more consumers to credit card use, the banks and credit card companies should consider making it more convenient for consumers to use their credit cards. Moreover, banks can increase their networking and degree of cooperation with merchants to increase the acceptance of payment by credit card. The most heavily used businesses such as supermarkets and smaller retailers, where consumers purchase goods frequently, would be good targets for banks’ attention. In addition, banks might also improve credit card reward programmes to make these more efficient and perhaps increase the size of the rewards customers can earn through card use.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 34 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Minh Chau Tran, Christopher E.C. Gan and Baiding Hu

– The purpose of this paper is to identify factors affecting formal credit constraint status of rural farm households in Vietnam’s North Central Coast (NCC) region.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify factors affecting formal credit constraint status of rural farm households in Vietnam’s North Central Coast (NCC) region.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the direct elicitation method (DEM), the authors consider both internal and external credit rationing.

Findings

Empirical evidences confirm the importance of household head’s age, gender and education to household’s likelihood of being credit constrained. In addition, households who have advantages in farm land size, labour resources and non-farm income are less likely to be credit constrained. Poor households are observed to remain restricted by formal credit institutions. Results from the endogenous switching regression model suggest that credit constraints negatively impact household’s consumption per capita and informal credit can act as a substitute to mitigate the negative influence of formal credit constraints.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation arises from the usage of the DEM to identify credit constrained households. The method cannot detect effective and ineffective constraints. Another limitation is the inability of cross-section data to capture long-term impacts of credit constraints on household welfare. Finally, causes of credit constraints from the lender’s view cannot be observed.

Practical implications

The results suggest that it is necessary to enhance the credit allocation regime to reduce the transaction cost and provide target households with sufficient credit. It should be emphasized that high transaction cost and the mismatch between credit demand and supply stemming from information asymmetry. The government can help formal financial institutions to reduce information cost by encouraging the active role of social organizations such as Women Unions, Youth Unions and Veteran Unions in bridging rural farm households with formal lenders.

Originality/value

There are limited studies focusing on determinants of credit constraints and their impacts on rural farm households. To the best of the knowledge, there is no study evaluating the impact of credit constraints on rural farm household welfare particularly in Vietnam. In addition, the studies related to credit constraints only considered full quantity rationing (households applied for the loan but were rejected), omitting the case of partly quantity rationing (loan obtained by the borrowers is less than their demand) and self-rationing.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 43 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2020

Dao Le Trang Anh and Christopher Gan

This study explores the effects of the COVID-19 outbreak and its following lockdown on daily stock returns in Vietnam, a fast-growing emerging market that successfully…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study explores the effects of the COVID-19 outbreak and its following lockdown on daily stock returns in Vietnam, a fast-growing emerging market that successfully revived after the pandemic lockdown.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses panel-data regression models to evaluate the influence of the daily increase in the number of COVID-19 confirmed cases during pre-lockdown and lockdown on daily stock returns of 723 listed firms in Vietnam from 30 January to 30 May 2020.

Findings

The study confirms the adverse impact of the daily increasing number of COVID-19 cases on stock returns in Vietnam. The study also discloses that the Vietnam stock market before and during the nationwide lockdown performed in opposing ways. Though COVID-19 pre-lockdown had a significant, negative impact on Vietnam's stock returns, the lockdown period had a significant, positive influence on stock performance of the entire market and the different business sectors in Vietnam. The financial sector was hardest hit on the Vietnam stock market during the COVID-19 outbreak.

Research limitations/implications

The study indicates investors' confidence and trust in the Vietnam government's decisions to combat COVID-19 and favorable stocks prices were the main reasons that the Vietnam stock market rebounded during and after lockdown.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine the impact of COVID-19 during the pre-lockdown and lockdown periods on stock performance in Vietnam, a rapidly developing economy that was successful in controlling the pandemic with a rejuvenated stock market after lockdown.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 48 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2017

Muhammad Nadeem, Christopher Gan and Cuong Nguyen

The aim of the current study is to measure the dynamic relationship between intellectual capital (IC) and firm performance in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa…

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1121

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the current study is to measure the dynamic relationship between intellectual capital (IC) and firm performance in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) economies.

Design/methodology/approach

The current study applies dynamic panel system generalized method of moments estimator to investigate the dynamic relationship between IC and firm performance of 6,045 publically listed firms in BRICS economies for the period of 2005-2014.

Findings

The results revealed that IC efficiency is significantly associated with return on assets and return on equity. Furthermore, human, structural and physical capitals have a positive and significant impact on firm performance. The results, while endorsing resource-based, resource-dependency and learning organization theories, emphasize the importance of IC for firm performance.

Practical implications

The current study does not only provides new direction for future research to analyze dynamic nature of IC and firm performance relationship but also emphasizes the importance of intangibles because of their contribution toward value added. The current study does provide cross-country comparison of top five emerging economies which is useful for the policy makers to evaluate investments in intangibles.

Originality/value

The current study is the first study to use dynamic ordinary least square (OLS) and Wooldridge strict exogeneity test to test the dynamic nature of the relationship between IC and firm performance. Moreover, unlike previous studies which ignore South Africa, this study covers all BRICS economies.

Details

Measuring Business Excellence, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-3047

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2020

Kwonsang Sohn, Christine Eunyoung Sung, Gukwon Koo and Ohbyung Kwon

This study examines consumers' evaluations of product consumption values, purchase intentions and willingness to pay for fashion products designed using generative…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study examines consumers' evaluations of product consumption values, purchase intentions and willingness to pay for fashion products designed using generative adversarial network (GAN), an artificial intelligence technology. This research investigates differences between consumers' evaluations of a GAN-generated product and a non-GAN-generated product and tests whether disclosing the use of GAN technology affects consumers' evaluations.

Design/methodology/approach

Sample products were developed as experimental stimuli using cycleGAN. Data were collected from 163 members of Generation Y. Participants were assigned to one of the three experimental conditions (i.e. non-GAN-generated images, GAN-generated images with disclosure and GAN-generated images without disclosure). Regression analysis and ANOVA were used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Functional, social and epistemic consumption values positively affect willingness to pay in the GAN-generated products. Relative to non-GAN-generated products, willingness to pay is significantly higher for GAN-generated products. Moreover, evaluations of functional value, emotional value and willingness to pay are highest when GAN technology is used, but not disclosed.

Originality/value

This study evaluates the utility of GANs from consumers' perspective based on the perceived value of GAN-generated product designs. Findings have practical implications for firms that are considering using GANs to develop products for the retail fashion market.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 49 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2021

Quang Thi Thieu Nguyen, Dao Le Trang Anh and Christopher Gan

This study investigates the Chinese stocks' returns during different epidemic periods to assess their effects on firms' market performance.

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the Chinese stocks' returns during different epidemic periods to assess their effects on firms' market performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs an event study method on more than 3,000 firms listed on Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges during periods of SARS, H5N1, H7N9 and COVID-19

Findings

Epidemics' effect on firms' stock returns is persistent up to 10 days after the event dates. Although the impact varies with types and development of the disease, most firms experience a negative impact of the epidemics. Among the epidemics, COVID-19 has the greatest impact, especially when it grows into a pandemic. The epidemics' impact is uneven across industries. In addition, B-shares and stocks listed on Shanghai Stock Exchange are more negatively influenced by the epidemic than A-shares and those listed on Shenzhen Stock Exchange.

Research limitations/implications

The results of the study contribute to the limited literature on the effects of disease outbreaks as an economic shock on firm market performance. Given the possibility of other epidemics in the future, the study provides guidance for investors in designing an appropriate investing strategy to cope with the epidemic shocks to the market.

Originality/value

The research is novel in the way it compares and assesses the economic impact of different epidemics on firms and considers their impact at different development stages.

Details

China Finance Review International, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1398

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2021

Nguyen Tuan Anh, Christopher Gan and Dao Le Trang Anh

This study simultaneously explores the nexus among formal, semiformal and informal credit markets and farm households' credit demand determinants in Vietnam.

Abstract

Purpose

This study simultaneously explores the nexus among formal, semiformal and informal credit markets and farm households' credit demand determinants in Vietnam.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a multistage stratified random sampling process for a survey of 648 smallholder farmers in the Red River Delta (RRD), Vietnam. The trivariate probit model (TVPM) is used to address the interdependence of farm households' credit demands in different credit markets.

Findings

The results reveal complementary relationships among two pairs of credit markets (formal versus informal and semiformal versus informal). There are dissimilarities among the determinants (household characteristics, household head's characteristics, credit history and geographic factors) of farm households' credit demands in different markets, reflecting segmentation of Vietnam credit markets.

Practical implications

The study's empirical findings are important for policymakers and credit providers to enhance farm households' access to credit for agriculture and to improve the operations of the three credit markets.

Originality/value

This is the first empirical study in Vietnam and one of few in other developing countries simultaneously exploring the determinants of credit demand in and interrelationships among all three credit markets to provide more comprehensive and accurate results.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 48 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1947

Washington.—The Government of the United States at the Copenhagen Conference of the Food and Agricultural Organisation last September firmly supported the twin objectives…

Abstract

Washington.—The Government of the United States at the Copenhagen Conference of the Food and Agricultural Organisation last September firmly supported the twin objectives of Sir John Orr's World Food Hoard proposals of raising the diets of all nations to a health standard and of stabilising agricultural prices at levels fair alike to both producers and consumers. Sir John's specific proposal for a World Food Board was not considered at Copenhagen. Instead, the U.S., the United Kingdom and all other nations represented at Copenhagen unanimously agreed to refer the whole question to a 17‐nation Preparatory Commission which met in Washington from October 28th to January 24th. The Commission was specifically instructed by the terms of reference to consider Sir John's proposal and any other alternative proposals which might be offered. The preparatory commission in its recommendations followed the instructions in the terms of reference and its final recommendations as made public on January 24th containing little of the specific machinery of the original proposals of Sir John's. But the twin objectives of Sir John's proposals were retained in the final recommendations. Had a show down come to Sir John's proposals at Copenhagen, the U.S. would have opposed it. Of this there can be no doubt. As early as August 9th, a month before the Copenhagen Conference, the U.S. Department of State issued a public statement on the Orr proposals. Any doubt as to the U.S. position was dispelled by Under Secretary of Agriculture Norris E. Dodd, who was chief American delegate at both Copenhagen and Washington. In his opening speech before the preparatory commission in Washington on October 28th, Mr. Dodd gave four reasons why the U.S. opposed the Orr proposal. He said: “First, we consider it doubtful whether a World Food Board or any similar device would, by itself, be adequate to deal with the effect that widespread government intervention threatens to have upon the agricultural demand and supply situation over the world once the present emergency has come to an end. Second, we consider it doubtful whether any combination of buffer‐stock and surplus‐disposal operations which contemplates the establishment of a two‐price system can be operated successfully without quantitative controls of supply. In our view such controls are not adequately provided for. Third, there is the fact that price, production and distribution problems differ greatly between different commodities and at different times. An over‐all body such as the proposed World Food Board would not suffice for dealing effectively with these so different and rapidly changing problems, which ought to be dealt with by special negotiations, commodity by commodity. Fourth, Governments are not likely to place the large funds needed for financing such a plan in the hands of an international agency over whose operations and price policy they would have little or no control. In view of these considerations, we believe that it is fortunate that the Copenhagen Conference has given this Commission a free hand to consider alternative machinery for achieving the basic objectives which we all support.” The original Orr proposals called for an internationally‐managed and internationally‐financed World Food Board. It would have bought and sold exportable surpluses at agreed minimum and maximum prices, thus providing a buffer‐stock against fluctuation in price and supply. Excess supplies under the Orr plan were to be sold cheaply to feed chronically malnourished people. FAO would work with such nations and with other international argencics to build producing and buying power so as to remove the underlying causes of poor diets. A statement by Under Secretary of Agriculture Mr. Norris E. Dodd, made on January 24th in connection with the report of the FAO Preparatory Commission on the food proposals, said, in part: “The principal ideas which the U.S. has advanced in the Commission are: (1) That the problems of better diets and price stabilisation mustbe approached in connection with the general expansion of production, employment, trade and consumption, as envisaged in the proposals for an International Trade Organisation, which we consider as complementary to the FAO programme. (2) That particular problems of price stabilisation can best be met through separate but co‐ordinated international agreements covering the specific commodities affected, within the general framework of principles for such agreements provided in the proposed ITO. (3) That under such commodity agreements the participating nations should consider methods of using excess supplies to support special food programmes to improve the diets of the most needy groups in connection with long‐term development plans designed to overcome the causes of malnutrition. (4) That the co‐ordination of national agricultural and nutritional programmes is so important the FAO should bring about annual consultation upon such programmes among the responsible national officials.” The principal U.S. proposals incorporated in the final report and recommendations of the FAO Preparatory Commission published on January 24th may be summarised as follows: The international commodity agreement approach to the stabilisation problem. The use of excess supplies under commodity agreements to support supplemental food programmes for vulnerable groups. Annual consultation of national agricultural and nutritional officials for the purpose of bringing about co‐ordination and integration of national programmes. Appointment of an interim co‐ordinating committee on international commodity agreements to bridge the gap between FAO and the projected International Trade Organisation. Acceptance in the final report of the American proposal for international commodity agreements may be construed as not merely an American victory since the commodity agreements would be negotiated within the framework of the proposed International Trade Organisation. Governments of 18 nations are represented on the ITO Preparatory Committee which met in London simultaneously with the FAO Preparatory Commission sessions in Washington. Here is the basic difference between the Orr World Food Hoard proposals and the final recommendation. Under a commodity agreement, such as provided for in the final report, each nation holds its own reserves, and finances its own operations. It provides for a co‐ordinated system of nationally managed and nationally financed buffer stocks of individual commodities. The Orr proposal envisaged an internationally managed and internationally financed World Food Board operating in many commodities. The U.S. position with reference to tieing in ITO with FAO was set out fully by Mr. Dodd in his October 28th speech before the FAO Preparatory Commission. Mr. Dodd said: “In putting forward its suggestions for an International Trade Organisation, the Government of the United States has had in mind the importance of securing— with the help of a reduction in trade barriers and other measures—a world‐wide expansion in employment, production, trade and consumption. We consider that action toward this end is of fundamental importance to the achievement of the objectives which this (Prepara‐tary) Commission is considering… It is the considered view of the United States Government that the ITO proposals provide a useful starling point for the deliberations of this Commission.” Previous U.S. experience in attempting to solve the riddle of farm surplus in the midst of hunger has been uneven and spotty. Perhaps the worst failure in this regard was the ill‐fated Federal Farm Board created in 1929 to arrest the drastic decline in farm prices. The Board advanced large sums to farmers' co‐operatives which extended loans to its member co‐operatives to induce farmers to withhold wheat and cotton from the market, without, however, controlling production. The Farm Board finally concluded that no such scheme could succeed without control over production, and production control therefore became a salient feature of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933. This Act was amended in 1936 to meet the objections of the U.S. Supreme Court, which held it unconstitutional, but the essential requirement of control over production was retained and remains in effect to‐day. The Commodity Credit Corporation, a Government buying and selling agency created in 1933, has succeeded where the Farm Board failed, because the Government has exercised a degree of control over production. At Copenhagen last September, Mr. Dodd referred to the success of the Commodity Credit Corporation in these words: “Some people have expressed fear that stabilisation of farm prices would keep food prices above the reach of many consumers, but in the United States we have used the Commodity Credit Corporation effectively to protect farm prices, and food consumption, meantime, has increased. Furthermore, Commodity Credit stocks have served as reserves against years of bad weather and poor crops—reserves that were welcome indeed during the last war.” The Biblical idea of Joseph—of an ever‐normal granary—wherein surplus farm supplies are carried over from years of good harvest as a reserve against lean years of crop failure and hunger war and popularised in the United States by Mr. Henry A. Wallace during his service as Secretary of Agriculture, 1933–40. Sir John's World Food Board proposal also envisaged this evernormal granary concept, but failed of adoption because of the heavy expense involved, together with lack of adequate controls over production. It was this absence of production control in the Orr plan that led the U.S. to oppose the Orr plan, even though the country was in sympathy with its humanitarian objectives of raising living standards through expansion of consumption.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 49 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2020

Dao Le Trang Anh and Christopher Gan

The purpose of this paper is to measure profitability and marketability efficiencies as well as examine the efficiencies’ determinants of listed manufacturing firms in Vietnam.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to measure profitability and marketability efficiencies as well as examine the efficiencies’ determinants of listed manufacturing firms in Vietnam.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs a bootstrap two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach to investigate the profitability and marketability efficiencies of 102 listed manufacturing firms on Vietnam stock market from 2007 to 2018. The study also applies fractional regression models (FRM) to identify the determinants of Vietnam manufacturing firms’ efficiencies.

Findings

The results reveal that Vietnam manufacturing firms obtain higher average profitability efficiency scores (0.888) than marketability efficiency scores (0.527) from 2007 to 2018. The high-tech firms achieve better profitability and marketability efficiencies than the traditional (resource-intensive and labour-intensive) Vietnam manufacturing firms in recent years (2016–2018). Further, the financial and non-financial factors have heterogeneous impacts on Vietnam manufacturing enterprises’ profit and market valuation efficiencies.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the nature of DEA technique that requires every decision-making unit to have available data of all inputs and outputs, the listed Vietnam manufacturing firms that have incomplete data or go public after 2007 are not included in the data set.

Practical implications

This study provides a reference for Vietnam manufacturing managers to position their firms competitively in the market as well as make wise operating, financing and management decisions.

Originality/value

This is the first study that attempts to combine bootstrap two-stage DEA and FRM, which are considered advantageous methods for DEA scores’ measurements and determinant evaluations in the current literature.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 47 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1944

If it is a fraud to dye an unripe orange to make it look ripe, why should it be permissible to dye winter butter to make it look like summer butter?”, he says. Or one…

Abstract

If it is a fraud to dye an unripe orange to make it look ripe, why should it be permissible to dye winter butter to make it look like summer butter?”, he says. Or one might add, to dye a biscuit brown to imply the presence of chocolate or to colour a cake yellow to simulate the addition of eggs? Our third heading is, What? What colouring matters should be allowed, and upon what conditions? Great Britain is the only leading country which has not a legal schedule of permitted colours. In this country any colouring agent may be added to food, except compounds of antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, lead and zinc. Gamboge, picric acid, victoria yellow, manchester yellow, aurantia and aurine are also prohibited. The addition, however, of any other colouring agent which is injurious to health would be an offence under the Food and Drugs Act. Other countries, including the United States of America, France, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Italy, Spain, Sweden and Denmark have drawn up lists of permissible colours. And so the question arises—is it preferable to draw up a list of permissible colours or one of prohibited colours? It is obvious that if only certain colours are prohibited the remainder may be legally employed so long as they are not injurious to health. Thus a colouring agent may be used for a considerable time before it is proved to be injurious, whereas, if only‐certain colouring agents which have been previously proved to be non‐injurious were permitted, this risk of possible danger to health would be avoided. There is no doubt that in many cases proof of injury to the health of the human being is difficult to obtain. Much of the work that has been carried out to establish whether a particular dye is harmless or not has involved the use of dogs as test subjects. This does not appear to be a very satisfactory method of testing, for obviously dogs may react very differently from human beings towards chemicals. A dog's digestive powers are stronger than those of humans. No one would think of suggesting that bones are suitable food for humans just because dogs love them! Matta found that the capacity to depress the human digestion is possessed not only by poisonous dyes but also by dyes which he had proved to be non‐poisonous to animals. In bacteriology the addition of very small amounts of certain dyes to the culture medium will retard the growth of particular organisms and therefore it would seem possible that some dyes might adversely affect the action of enzymes in the body. So it would seem of importance that, if possible, all colouring matters, before being permitted to be used in food, should be proved by a competent authority to be harmless to human beings. If the effects of colouring matters upon the human digestive processes cannot be easily carried out in the body then it might be possible to perform such tests in vitro, using artificial gastric juice. It may be argued that the proportion of colouring matter added to food, ranging from about 1 part in 2,000 to about 1 part in 300,000, is so small that any particular colouring agent would need to be a deadly poison before any appreciable injurious effect upon health would occur. This argument does not, however, take into account the possible injurious effects which may be caused by the frequent ingestion of colouring matters which may have but mild toxic properties. It is known, for instance, that many synthetic colours have marked antiseptic properties even in highly diluted solutions, and therefore they may adversely affect the digestive processes. In any case, surely it would be wiser to eliminate all risks by requiring that official physiological tests should be carried out upon colouring matters before they are permitted to be used in food. One has to safeguard not only the healthy person but also the very young, the old and those who are of a delicate constitution. A harmless colour has been defined in Canada as one “which will not retard digestion nor have special physiological effects when consumed in quantities corresponding to 2 grains per day per adult.” The Departmental Committee in its report on “The use of preservatives and colouring matters in food,” published in 1924, stated that “It appears to us that definite evidence from direct experiments should be obtained as to the harmlessness of a dye before its use should be permitted in food. We have therefore come to the conclusion that a list of permitted colours should be prepared and that no colours other than those in such a list should be allowed to be used in the preparation of food. The list should, in our opinion, be prepared by the Minister of Health and issued by him, provision being made for the consideration of claims advanced by traders for the recognition and approval of additional colours on satisfactory evidence of harmlessness. We do not think that action such as this should seriously embarrass manufacturing interests, or is a course on which it is unreasonable, in view of the importance of the subject, to insist.” Yet, in spite of these recommendations of the Committee, no list of permitted colours was passed into law, and one wonders why. One argument against the drawing up of a list of prohibited colours is that even if a non‐prohibited colour is proved to the satisfaction of a given Court to be injurious to health that decision is not binding on other Courts and so there may be a lack of uniformity. A certain colour may be permitted in one town and prohibited in the next, which fact might add to the difficulties of the large scale manufacturer whose products are sold over a wide area. The leading manufacturers of dyes for use in food no doubt exercise great care in their preparation and such products are normally free from objectionable impurities, but it is possible that other dyestuff manufacturers are not so particular concerning the purity of their products. For instance, about 1938 a firm was fined for selling “Damson Blue” containing 540 parts of lead per million. Therefore it would seem necessary that some official control over the dyes that are sold for use in food should be introduced. The manufacture of some dyes involves complicated processes, and it is stated that in the production of one particular colour over 100 different chemicals are used and thirty different reactions, occupying several weeks, must be carried out before the finished colour is produced.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 46 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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