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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2019

Laura Simmons, Arwel W. Jones, Niro Siriwardena and Christopher Bridle

Sickness absence is a major concern for healthcare services and their employees with healthcare workers having higher sickness absence rates compared to the general…

Abstract

Purpose

Sickness absence is a major concern for healthcare services and their employees with healthcare workers having higher sickness absence rates compared to the general population. The purpose of this paper is to systematically review randomised control trials (RCTs) that aimed to reduce sickness absence among healthcare workers.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic review was conducted that aimed to include RCTs with study participants who were employed in any part of the healthcare sector. This review included any type of intervention with the primary outcome measure being sickness absence.

Findings

Seven studies were included in the review and consisted of one exercise-only intervention, three multicomponent intervention programmes, two influenza vaccination interventions and one process consultation. Three studies (exercise-only, one multicomponent intervention programme and one influenza vaccination intervention) were able to demonstrate a reduction in sickness absence compared to control.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the lack of high-quality evidence, this review identified that there are currently no interventions that healthcare organisations are able to use to effectively reduce sickness absence among their employees. This review also highlights the importance of a standardised measure of sickness absence for healthcare staff, such as shifts.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first systematic review to synthesise such evidence among healthcare workers.

Details

International Journal of Emergency Services, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2047-0894

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Elniee Melson, Christopher Bridle and Wolfgang Markham

The purpose of this paper is to report the process evaluation of a pilot randomised control trial of an anti-smoking intervention for Malaysian 13-14-year olds, conducted…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report the process evaluation of a pilot randomised control trial of an anti-smoking intervention for Malaysian 13-14-year olds, conducted in 2011/2012. It was hypothesised that trained peer supporters would promote non-smoking among classmates through informal conversations.

Design/methodology/approach

Smoking-related baseline and follow-up questionnaires were administered, seven months apart, to Form 1 students (n=2,118) attending eight schools across two districts in Sabah (Kota Kinabalu; Keningau). Concealed stratified randomisation assigned two schools per district to the control and intervention arms. Control schools received usual care. Intervention schools received usual care and the peer supporter intervention. Peer supporters completed smoking-related knowledge and attitudes questionnaires before and after peer supporter training and peer supporter training evaluation questionnaires. They also discussed the peer supporter training and role in focus groups immediately following training (n=4) and three months later (n=3), and additionally, recorded post-training anti-smoking activity in diaries.

Findings

The pilot trial found that student recruitment was high (baseline students matched at follow-up n=1,681 (79 per cent of class-registered students). More boys (n=38) than girls (n=35) attended peer supporter training. Post-training, most peer supporters had improved smoking-related knowledge (n=55; 75 per cent) and attitudes (n=57; 78 per cent) and returned diaries (n=49; 67 per cent). Some focus group boys reported they were reluctant peer supporters and/or found resisting smoking difficult.

Practical implications

Future trials would benefit from outlined modifications to peer supporter selection, recruitment and training and additionally, assessments of context and intervention acceptability and reach.

Originality/value

Trials of complex public health interventions are scarce in economically developing countries.

Details

Health Education, vol. 117 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Book part
Publication date: 13 September 2018

Chin How (Norman) Goh, Michael D. Short, Nanthi S. Bolan and Christopher P. Saint

Biosolids, the residual solids from wastewater treatment operations and once considered a waste product by the industry, are now becoming increasingly recognised as a…

Abstract

Biosolids, the residual solids from wastewater treatment operations and once considered a waste product by the industry, are now becoming increasingly recognised as a multifunctional resource with growing opportunities for marketable use. This shift in attitude towards biosolids management is spurred on by increasing volatility in energy, fertilizer and commodity markets as well as moves by the global community towards mitigating global warming and the effects of climate change. This chapter will provide an overview of current global biosolids practices (paired with a number of Australian examples) as well as discuss potential future uses of biosolids. Additionally, present and future risks and opportunities of biosolids use are highlighted, including potential policy implications.

Details

Unmaking Waste in Production and Consumption: Towards the Circular Economy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-620-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1961

The news that the Ministry of Education has set up two Working Parties in connection with the proposed new Public Libraries Bill is welcome and gives further hope that…

Abstract

The news that the Ministry of Education has set up two Working Parties in connection with the proposed new Public Libraries Bill is welcome and gives further hope that such a Bill will appear in the not too distant future. From the constitutions of these Working Parties, which seem to us to be fairly representative of all interests, it would appear that the first is going to concern itself with the main aspects of the Roberts Report recommendations, while the second will be given the task of studying the problems of library co‐operation. On the first party, county libraries are represented by Miss Paulin and Mr. Budge, while Wales is represented by Mr. A. Edwards, librarian of the Cardiganshire and Aberystwyth Joint Library. Mr. D. I. Colley, the city librarian of Manchester, will be keeping a watching brief on behalf of the large libraries, but it should not be forgotten that he is also a member of the Libraries Committee of the Association of Municipal Corporations. Mr. Gardner is rightly there, perhaps not only as librarian of Luton but also as chairman of the Library Association's Executive Committee. The Smaller Libraries Group can surely have no complaints, for out of the ten members of Working Party No. I there are three librarians from smaller libraries, these being Mr. Helliwell of Winchester, Mr. Christopher of Penge and Mr. Parker of Ilkley. This Working Party is completed by two legal representatives in Mr. W. B. Murgatroyd, who is Town Clerk of Hornsey, and Mr. J. H. Oldham, who is Assistant County Solicitor for Kent.

Details

New Library World, vol. 62 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

Christopher Wright

The rapid growth of interlibrary loans in recent years has forced us to take a hard look at the practical and financial aspects of what we once thought of as a simple…

Abstract

The rapid growth of interlibrary loans in recent years has forced us to take a hard look at the practical and financial aspects of what we once thought of as a simple barter system. One good turn (the loan of a book) deserves another. The concepts of “reciprocal borrowing: and “resource sharing” are yielding to accounting principles and business processes. Charging for loans is becoming an acceptable practice. Which leads to the question, where did we get the idea that loans should be free in the first place? Early proponents of interlibrary loans in the USA did not shrink from the idea of charging but were stymied by the mechanics of collecting and distributing money. Our moral reluctance to charge is a relatively recent and perhaps transitory phenomenon. Bibliographic utilities have resolved many of the accounting problems. In the light of history, the decision to charge has more to do with mechanics than morality.

Details

Interlending & Document Supply, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-1615

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Book part
Publication date: 9 December 2013

Christopher Mackin

Political institutions and contemporary workplaces operate according to different rules. The seeming contradiction between these two spheres, one democratic and the other…

Abstract

Purpose

Political institutions and contemporary workplaces operate according to different rules. The seeming contradiction between these two spheres, one democratic and the other something else, presents an opportunity for productive speculation about the possibilities for reconciliation. The purpose of this paper is to provide a guide for future research investigation of this perennial topic.

Design/methodology/approach

The discussion of whether the workplace can catch up with the democratic achievements of political life requires an understanding of the status quo, the prevailing frames or metaphors that govern our understanding of organizational life. Four metaphors are put forward to describe the prevailing spectrum of thought. In addition to metaphors, analogies are introduced as an interpretive tool to help guide the imaginative transition between political and workplace domains.

Practical implications

Democratic political cultures are supported by structures and institutions which encourage the expression of individual and collective voice. Workplaces, comprised of the same citizens who participate in the governance of communities, do not, with some important exceptions, offer the same opportunities for democratic participation. If a general analogy between political and workplace sphere is found persuasive, it should be possible to import and adapt democratic traditions from the former to the latter.

Originality/value

Discussions of workplace democracy often suffer from a certain naiveté, a bias against structure and toward informal consensus. Insofar as democratic workplaces are by definition smaller scale than political communities, this bias is defensible. This paper concludes however by asserting certain minimal “acid test” challenges to those who would promote the goal of workplace democracy.

Details

Sharing Ownership, Profits, and Decision-Making in the 21st Century
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-750-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1934

EVERY method employed by librar ns to bring books to the notice of readers may be justified It is thus desirable to devote an occasional issue of THE LIBRARY WORLD to this…

Abstract

EVERY method employed by librar ns to bring books to the notice of readers may be justified It is thus desirable to devote an occasional issue of THE LIBRARY WORLD to this attractive subject. Our writers take differing views, but there is always a single aim in their work: to bring right book and reader into acquaintance. We might have to meet the challenge, which indeed one of our writers implies, that such book display may deflect the Library from its original, rightful purpose. Until these terms are defined such a challenge is a begging of the question. Often we have mentioned the question, For what public is the public library working? Was it intended to serve as an auxiliary, and then an extension, of the official education system? It has always indeed been more and less than that. Our founders were able to argue that libraries would withdraw men from beer and ill‐company, but from the first they probably failed to do that, and made their appeal to the intelligent elements in the community. As they developed and public education waxed, there grew up an enormous literature, available in early years in small quantity, the aim of which was entertainment only, and there survived—there survives still—a notion which was based on an earlier conception of books, that to read was somehow educative and virtuous, whatever was read. Librarians hold this notion in some measure to‐day, although the recent success of twopenny libraries which are mainly devoted to the entertainment type of literature must have made them revise the view somewhat.

Details

New Library World, vol. 36 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1979

“All things are in a constant state of change”, said Heraclitus of Ephesus. The waters if a river are for ever changing yet the river endures. Every particle of matter is…

Abstract

“All things are in a constant state of change”, said Heraclitus of Ephesus. The waters if a river are for ever changing yet the river endures. Every particle of matter is in continual movement. All death is birth in a new form, all birth the death of the previous form. The seasons come and go. The myth of our own John Barleycorn, buried in the ground, yet resurrected in the Spring, has close parallels with the fertility rites of Greece and the Near East such as those of Hyacinthas, Hylas, Adonis and Dionysus, of Osiris the Egyptian deity, and Mondamin the Red Indian maize‐god. Indeed, the ritual and myth of Attis, born of a virgin, killed and resurrected on the third day, undoubtedly had a strong influence on Christianity.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1906

EVERY librarian in his inmost heart dislikes newspapers. He regards them as bad literature; attractors of undesirable readers; a drain upon the limited resources of the…

Abstract

EVERY librarian in his inmost heart dislikes newspapers. He regards them as bad literature; attractors of undesirable readers; a drain upon the limited resources of the library; and a target against which the detractors of public libraries are constantly battering. From the standpoint of the librarian, newspapers are the most expensive and least productive articles stocked by a library, and their lavish provision is, perhaps, the most costly method of purchasing waste‐paper ever devised. Pressure of circumstances and local conditions combine, however, to muzzle the average librarian, and the consequence is that a perfectly honest and outspoken discussion of the newspaper question is very rarely seen. In these circumstances, an attempt to marshal the arguments for and against the newspaper, together with some account of a successful practical experiment at limitation, may prove interesting to readers of this magazine.

Details

New Library World, vol. 9 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1914

A brief description of the parts of a modern book: The usual order, &c., of the various parts of an average modern book may be enumerated as follows:—

Abstract

A brief description of the parts of a modern book: The usual order, &c., of the various parts of an average modern book may be enumerated as follows:—

Details

New Library World, vol. 16 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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