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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2008

John F. Tanner, Christophe Fournier, Jorge A. Wise, Sandrine Hollet and Juliet Poujol

This paper aims to present perceptions of sales executives from three countries regarding expectations for the future of the sales profession and sales position.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present perceptions of sales executives from three countries regarding expectations for the future of the sales profession and sales position.

Design/methodology/approach

Results of a thematic interpretation of in‐depth interviews are presented, using several agenda‐setting articles as a foundation.

Findings

Executives struggle with how salespeople should add value, especially in today's multi‐channel environment. Greater professionalization is needed in countries where the state of the profession is less developed. Emergent strategy is practiced but not universally. Sales executives generally believe that little incremental value in technology can be gained, though it is apparent that technology is not being fully utilized. Other findings are also discussed.

Research limitations/implications

Researchers should consider classifying sales research by sales strategy rather than industry or country unless those aspects are factors being studied; further, questions such as how do salespeople create value and when is human intervention in the sales process required are offered.

Practical implications

Executives should re‐examine sales technology, particularly in managing and transferring knowledge. Emergent strategy requires processes for identifying and transferring effective adaptation. Sales organizations must develop, at the salesperson level, greater business acumen, to be gained through training, experience or selection.

Originality/value

This study identifies issues and factors that will influence sales practice and should influence sales research into the future. Particularly, the study is the first to highlight the use of emergent strategy, as well as the issue of identifying and creating value.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2020

Rémi Bourrou, Olga Budenkova, Christophe Lafon and Annie Gagnoud

Heating with a low-frequency induction is a key phenomenon in a process dedicated to the treatment of nuclear wastes. This paper aims to present a step of the numerical…

Abstract

Purpose

Heating with a low-frequency induction is a key phenomenon in a process dedicated to the treatment of nuclear wastes. This paper aims to present a step of the numerical model being developed to study this process.

Design/methodology/approach

A hydrodynamic model for the processing of a liquid charge consisting of a metallic phase and a dielectric one is developed based on a volume of fluid (VOF) approach coupled with electromagnetic calculations. The latter allows one to calculate the distribution of the Joule heating in the setup and radiative heat exchange inside the crucible is accounted with a surface-to-surface (S2S) model coupled with VOF.

Findings

Numerical results are compared with the measures obtained on the prototype of the process. The results are in good agreement but the model needs to be improved to consider the varying viscosity of the glass.

Originality/value

The usage of a S2S radiation model coupled to the VOF model is not common for studies of materials melted by electromagnetic induction. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of this approach.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering , vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2021

Michel Klein

The concept of emotional labor refers to the management of emotions in interaction with customers. This study aims to suggest an integrative definition of emotional labor…

Abstract

Purpose

The concept of emotional labor refers to the management of emotions in interaction with customers. This study aims to suggest an integrative definition of emotional labor. It develops a conceptual framework that helps organize and synthesize key insights from the literature, in an interactional and multi-level perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

This integrated framework consists in a mapping of key research themes resulting from a systematic literature review, which includes research in sales and marketing. As critical affective processes in sales have not been studied sufficiently, both in business-to-business and business-to-customer selling, this review also incorporates works in other research fields.

Findings

Sales representatives’ emotional labor must be considered as a bi-directional interaction with the customer in a multi-level perspective. Moreover, emotional labor has rather negative consequences for the salesperson (e.g. burnout and job stress), but may have positive sales and customer outcomes. Findings suggest that the expression of genuine emotions should be used during sales interactions. In addition, organizations should prevent customers’ negative behaviors (e.g. mistreatment).

Practical implications

Emotional labor key practical implications with regard to several management functions such as the recruitment, performance management and training (Ashkanasy and Daus, 2002) of the sales representatives.

Originality/value

Research on emotional labor in a sales ecosystem is scarce. It has largely covered service industry employees in contact with customers, but has not paid enough attention to sales representatives (Mikeska et al., 2015). The proposed integrated framework concerning emotional labor focuses on the bi-directional interaction between the sales representatives and their customers.

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2021

Ludovic Cassely, Sami Ben Larbi, Christophe Revelli and Alain Lacroux

This study aims to compare the different effects of the 2008 economic crisis on companies’ corporate social performance (CSP) in coordinated market economies (CMEs) and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to compare the different effects of the 2008 economic crisis on companies’ corporate social performance (CSP) in coordinated market economies (CMEs) and liberal market economies (LMEs).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper mobilizes a pluralistic theoretical framework that borrows from neo-institutional and corporate governance theories to compare the impacts of the 2008 economic crisis on long-term CSP in an international context. Based on the longitudinal database of Vigeo Eiris (2004–2015), the panel was decomposed between two models of capitalism (LME and CME). For each model, this paper conducted a series of regressions, taking into account the longitudinal nature of the data using estimates based on generalized estimating equations (Liang and Zeger, 1986).

Findings

The paper shows that the economic crisis prompted companies operating in LMEs and CMEs to reorient their corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices in quite different ways during the four-year period that the crisis lasted, as well as the succeeding four-year post-crisis period. While CSR was perceived in LMEs as a threat during the crisis period because of the additional costs it generated, it offered CME companies a way of redefining how they relate to the rest of society, with their goal becoming the creation of greater shared value.

Research limitations/implications

The results are dependent from the data, and specifically from the Vigeo Eiris database. It would be interesting to extrapol this kind of research with the use of other CSP/environmental, social and governance (ESG) databases as Morgan Stanley Capital International, Sustainalytics or RepRisk, to compare and conclude more globally on tendencies. Another limitation relates to the binary nature of Hall and Soskice’s (2001) typology, with its neo-institutionalist inspiration, that puts Continental European and social-democratic models of capitalism on the same plane.

Practical implications

This study teaches managers, analysts and policymakers that CSR can be a powerful strategic lever capable of remedying the harmful effects that economic crises have in both LMEs and CMEs, notwithstanding the cultural, socio-economic and political differences between these models of capitalism. Economic and social crises must help companies to rethink and revisit their business models and CSR practices to subsequently implement sustainability strategies more in sync with the values forced upon them by the economic systems to which they belonged but also by all their stakeholders.

Social implications

From a managerial standpoint, this study allows practitioners to consider CSR as an opportunity to rethink their strategy and business models in a period of crisis, and no more a threat that could reduce the economic performance in increasing the costs, and thus, the cost of financing.

Originality/value

After reading the literature on the topic, this paper clearly thinks about the high degree of contribution of the paper, as the topic is not so developed and that the study implies several contributions. First, from a theoretical level, the study differs from previous research studies insofar as it compares the impacts of the economic crisis on companies’ CSP in CMEs and LMEs using a theoretical framework that operationalizes both contractual and neo-institutional theories. Second, from a methodological standpoint, the approach using an ESG data provider known worldwide (Vigeo Eiris) has not been down yet. Third, on a managerial level, the present study teaches managers, analysts and policymakers that CSR can be a powerful strategic lever capable of remedying the harmful effects that economic crises have in both LMEs and CMEs, notwithstanding the cultural, socio-economic and political differences between these models of capitalism.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2007

Bernard Cova, Stefano Pace and David J. Park

The “brand community” concept believes that the meaning of the brand transcends national boundaries. However, such an assumption presents challenges arising out of several…

Abstract

Purpose

The “brand community” concept believes that the meaning of the brand transcends national boundaries. However, such an assumption presents challenges arising out of several reasons including co‐existence of sub‐tribes within a given brand community that allocate different meanings to a particular brand. This plurality of meanings seems exacerbated for global brands where meanings are shaped by tremendously varying cultures. Aims to address the issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This text relies on a comparative study of the meanings attributed to one particular global brand, Warhammer, by the members of its brand community in France and the USA.

Findings

Findings highlight the elements of homogeneity and heterogeneity that reside in the cross‐border meanings of the brand. The authors also discuss the marketplace relevance arising out of this plurality that should be taken into account by global marketers.

Originality/value

The present text argues that community attached to a global brand constitutes a complex phenomenon, one that both integrates and ignores geographical considerations.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2019

Wilson Bastos

This paper aims to examine how conversing about experiences and objects affects consumer happiness. In contrast to previous research focusing on conversation frequency…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine how conversing about experiences and objects affects consumer happiness. In contrast to previous research focusing on conversation frequency, this paper explores how each conversation instance influences happiness.

Design/methodology/approach

Four experiments use three different methodologies, namely, actual talking behavior (Study 1), recalled and mental framing interventions and measurement of the focal variables (Studies 2 and 3) and manipulation of purchase conversationality (Study 4).

Findings

Consumers derive equivalent levels of happiness from each material or experiential conversation they have. When the object is highly conversational (when it generates as much conversation as experiences do), it advances as much happiness as experiences.

Research limitations/implications

The findings inform precisely how the purchase conversationality model unfolds; clarify previous claims made in the literature; establish the direction of causal effect; and reveal a novel boundary condition of happiness superiority of experiences.

Practical implications

The findings inform marketing managers how to optimally allocate their world-of-mouth (WOM) resources to advance consumer happiness. Additionally, this work shows a mental framing strategy able to increase WOM for objects – i.e. a tool for the manager.

Originality/value

This is the first investigation to disentangle the frequency of conversation from each conversation’s ability to advance happiness. It is also the first to engage participants in an actual conversation and measure changes in their happiness, and therefore, conclusively establish the direction of the effect. Additionally, by manipulating purchase conversationality, this work demonstrates a new boundary condition associated with conversationality.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Dimitris Theodossopoulos and Edwar Calderon

Fieldwork in architectural conservation education is a proven practice to develop skills in documenting current conditions and start methodological engagements with a…

Abstract

Purpose

Fieldwork in architectural conservation education is a proven practice to develop skills in documenting current conditions and start methodological engagements with a site's architectural and historical values. It is a vehicle to generate intensive learning experiences in comprehensive degrees or short courses. Review of the practice within conservation education is not extensive and the purpose of this paper is to reflect on enhancing pedagogy further.

Design/methodology/approach

This reflection was triggered by a major case study, a workshop to generate UG teaching capacity for an Architecture school in Colombia. This led to mapping the fieldwork spectrum, reviewing the authors' experiences (PG courses and external workshops) and activities planned in other MSc programmes. Fieldwork is often seen as skills training, so enhancement is explored through the affiliate geography and architecture UG curricula.

Findings

The Colombia workshop provoked strong engagement among students and tutors, and their commitment to make heritage meaningful to their projects is a measure of this pedagogy's success. Fieldwork around a site's essence, beyond skills development can induce conservation students into critical enquiries by motivating them to develop personalised contexts and enhance engagement with the unexpected through inversion of linear learning processes. Setting up site exercises early on PG programmes can encourage curiosity in exploring historic environments and contextualise surveying methods.

Research limitations/implications

Student reaction to these ideas has still to be tested by designing new activities. The educational methods of this implementation need deeper analysis, beyond the paper's scope.

Originality/value

The paper maps the academic value of fieldwork in conservation education, investigating enhancement and cross-fertilisation from architecture and geography.

Details

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1266

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Article
Publication date: 20 August 2018

Leonor Rodriguez, Ann Marie Groarke, Pat Dolan and Padraig MacNeela

As an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), the purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth understanding of adolescent experiences of maternal cancer to…

Abstract

Purpose

As an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), the purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth understanding of adolescent experiences of maternal cancer to identify the individual and contextual factors that shape adolescent experiences and evaluates the potential applicability of the Family Ecology Model to the illness context.

Design/methodology/approach

This analysis is focussed on three female adolescents who completed semi-structured interviews, which were subjected to IPA. Maternal illness is a challenge for adolescents, which can be improved or undermined by their contexts. The analysis yielded three sub-themes: family structure, social supports, experiencing maternal cancer at a time of transition and the lasting impact of cancer.

Findings

This study found that adolescent experiences of maternal cancer depend on their contexts from an ecological perspective the type and quality of adolescent interactions determine coping and adjustment. Maternal cancer can be difficult as adolescents are already facing specific developmental challenges. Future research can benefit from adopting an ecological perspective to further understand adolescent experiences to support adolescent that may be more vulnerable and benefit from additional supports. This is not a generalisable piece of research but it provides a very deep and detailed understanding of the impact of maternal cancer on adolescents’ developmental course and determines how the complexity of their contexts can serve as a risk or a protective factor at this challenging time.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the body of research by providing a comprehensive understanding of adolescents facing maternal cancer. The Ecological Model supports the findings of this research and proves to be a good model to understand the complex interplay between adolescents and their environments when facing a difficult challenge like maternal cancer is.

Details

Qualitative Research Journal, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1443-9883

Keywords

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