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Book part

Christine Gerber and Martin Krzywdzinski

The term “crowdwork” describes a new form of digital work that is organized and regulated by internet-based platforms. This chapter examines how crowdwork platforms ensure…

Abstract

The term “crowdwork” describes a new form of digital work that is organized and regulated by internet-based platforms. This chapter examines how crowdwork platforms ensure their virtual workforce’s commitment and control its performance despite its high mobility, anonymity, and dispersion. The findings are based on a case study analysis of 15 microtask and macrotask platforms, encompassing 32 interviews with representatives of crowdwork platforms, and crowdworkers, as well as an analysis of the platforms’ homepages and community spaces. The chapter shows that performance control on crowd platforms relies on a combination of direct control, reputation systems, and community building, which have until now been studied in isolation or entirely ignored. Moreover, the findings suggest that while all three elements can be found on both microtask and macrotask platforms, their functionality and purpose differ. Overall, the findings highlight that platforms are no neutral intermediaries but organizations that adopt an active role in structuring the digital labor process and in shaping working conditions. Their managerial structures are coded and objectified into seemingly neutral technological infrastructures, whereby the underlying power relations between capital and labor become obscured.

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Work and Labor in the Digital Age
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-585-7

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Abstract

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Work and Labor in the Digital Age
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-585-7

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Abstract

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Work and Labor in the Digital Age
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-585-7

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Article

Saad Sarhan, Christine Pasquire, Emmanuel Manu and Andrew King

The construction industry has been subject to substantial criticism for its short-term “hit-and-run” relationships which are focussed on win-lose situations. Despite the…

Abstract

Purpose

The construction industry has been subject to substantial criticism for its short-term “hit-and-run” relationships which are focussed on win-lose situations. Despite the wide recognition of these problems the industry persistently resists the radical demanded of it. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is twofold. First, to investigate why this might be the case by reviewing the governance problem confronting clients and decision makers in construction procurement, as conceptualised in transaction cost economics (TCE). Second, to critically analyse and question the efficiency and effectiveness of various safeguarding approaches, which are taken for granted and commonly practiced in construction, from a lean perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis of this paper is based on an in-depth critical review of 76 construction procurement and contractual-related articles, ranging from 1994 to 2016, using theories of Lean construction and TCE as an analytical lens.

Findings

Findings reveal that clients and decision makers often tend to safeguard their project-specific assets, against opportunism and exploitation, through the deployment of formal contractual arrangements and governance structures. These arrangements and structures typically dominate the management of the project delivery often to the detriment of the project itself; but because there is a belief that interests are safeguarded, clients and decision makers feel they have taken the best course of action. This goes a long way to explaining the coherence of the current construction model.

Research limitations/implications

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is the first to demonstrate the usefulness of using principles of Lean construction in association with TCE when analysing construction-procurement-related issues. In particular, the use of a “lean” lens helps to expose the impact of procurement governance arrangements on process flow. The study also provides a potential research agenda that can lead to the development of prescriptive conceptual frameworks for causal analysis of institutionalised waste in construction.

Practical implications

The paper attempts to expose to clients and decision makers the amount of waste (and unnecessary cost) they embed by adhering to prevailing unfit-for-purpose contractual governance approaches. It also helps decision makers to consider alternative procurement arrangements and organisational techniques that could be of value and support collaborative ways of working.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the overall understanding of waste in construction by providing insight into various imperfect procurement and contractual arrangements, which are taken for granted and impede efficiency and improvement efforts in construction. The findings presented provide a theoretical anchor and rationale for developing alternative approaches to the design and delivery of capital projects.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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Article

Giulia Carbonari, Spyridon Stravoravdis and Christine Gausden

The purpose of the presented research is to investigate which tasks among the ones performed during a buildings’ operational phase are perceived to be more inefficient and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the presented research is to investigate which tasks among the ones performed during a buildings’ operational phase are perceived to be more inefficient and to investigate if the information within a building information model (BIM) can help improve task efficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

The Digital Built Britain (BIM Level 3) aims to extend BIM into operation by promoting a life cycle approach for buildings through an integrated digital environment. Nevertheless, the main focus of both BIM Level 2 and Level 3 is mainly on design, construction and hand over; therefore, the current understanding and use of BIM for a buildings’ occupancy phase is still limited. Current literature and research focusing on BIM and building management show only marginal use of the technology, especially in terms of how BIM can be used beside for maintenance.

Findings

The paper presents the results of an online questionnaire survey aimed to ascertain the level of perceived inefficiencies of operational tasks. Through the analysis of Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) data models, the research identifies the data set needed to improve the efficiency of the tasks and presents a structured implementation plan to identify the information that should be prioritized in the model implementation.

Originality/value

The study presents part of a methodology developed by the author aimed to implement a BIM model for existing buildings including information that would support the management of the single facility/portfolio. While other studies have considered BIM and the operational phase, especially in relation to asset maintenance, this study has focused on understanding how the information included in the model can improve task efficiency.

Details

Journal of Corporate Real Estate, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-001X

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Article

Sarah Drake Brown and Richard L. Hughes

The purpose of this paper is to examine three high school teachers’ beliefs about how their understanding of historiography influences their teaching.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine three high school teachers’ beliefs about how their understanding of historiography influences their teaching.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors engaged in a qualitative multiple-case study based on semi-structured interviews and artifact analysis.

Findings

The analysis describes the teachers’ understanding of historiography in relation to ideas about historical perspective-taking, textbook use, the incorporation of primary sources in the classroom, and tensions between teaching content and teaching skills. The study concludes that while undergraduate exposure to historiography is potentially useful and can help history teachers manage the complexity of the profession, drawing upon historiographical understandings in order to recognize the construction of historical narratives in the classroom remains a persistent challenge.

Originality/value

Much of the work addressing the potential role of historiographical understanding for teachers has focused on teacher preparation and the ideas held by teaching candidates. This research emphasizes experienced teachers’ beliefs about the role that historiography plays in their teaching.

Details

Social Studies Research and Practice, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1933-5415

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Article

After a few years away from the countryside, a brief visit to some farms in the heart of England reveals a changed scene. Farming is obviously prosperous and there are now…

Abstract

After a few years away from the countryside, a brief visit to some farms in the heart of England reveals a changed scene. Farming is obviously prosperous and there are now many more young men farming; because of better conditions, older men have been able to retire and hand over to the younger man who has often attended an agricultural college and shows it in the methods he employs, especially in milk production Nowadays there seems to be a surfeit of machines, a greater use of machine‐milking, sometimes with pipe‐systems to cooler and direct to churns, without manual effort from start to finish. The rural water supply schemes and electrification between the two wars have revolutionised farming and taken the drudgery out of milk production. The farm kitchen is a revelation and the farmer's wife, young, strong, efficient, attractive and fashionable, surrounded with every electrical domestic appliance devised by the ingenuity of man, is as much changed as the farmer himself.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 68 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

Mary Ellen Zuckerman

The purpose of this paper is to look at the role played by home economists in providing information to consumers about household products. The work of home economist and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to look at the role played by home economists in providing information to consumers about household products. The work of home economist and educator Martha Van Rensselaer is reviewed, specifically her time as editor of the homemaking department of women's magazine Delineator from 1921‐1926.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper used qualitative analysis of the content of the homemaking department under Van Rensselaer as well as quantitative analysis of the advertising during those years. Documents from several manuscript collections were used as well.

Findings

Content analysis showed a shift over the years from 1921‐1926 from broader social themes to greater emphasis on specific homemaking tasks. Ads were regularly placed next to related editorial content, but under Van Rensselaer no brand names were mentioned editorially.

Research limitations/implications

Since this research focused on one magazine, comparison with homemaking departments in other women's journals at this time would provide useful context.

Originality/value

The specific example provided illuminates the evolving relationship between advertisers, home economists, media and consumers.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

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Book part

Jennifer E. Cossyleon

This chapter documents how the process of grassroots community organizing through a family-focused model of local contestation liberates participants, mainly Black and…

Abstract

This chapter documents how the process of grassroots community organizing through a family-focused model of local contestation liberates participants, mainly Black and immigrant Latina mothers in Chicago, from the constraints of individualization. While much philanthropic and academic interest focuses on the policy and quantitative “impacts” and “outcomes” of local social movements, the current study looks to local organizers to better understand their experiences and how they construct meaning through their participation. In-depth interviews and participant observations show how leaders gained collective purpose and voice through family-focused collective action. Community Organizing and Family Issues, a non-profit organizing institution, supported and propelled participants (leaders) to organize locally to create change in their communities, while it also facilitated conversions in self-perceptions. Leaders often discovered a sense of capacity, which contested gendered, raced, and classed oppression and self-doubt. Through the process of community organizing, leaders exercised power and dignity, facets that for the women in this study, were often ignored and devalued in society. These understudied social effects of collective action help us to better understand how marginalized women experience local social movements that cannot be quantified to fit narrow measures of movement “impacts” and “outcomes.”

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Abstract

Details

Women in Leadership 2nd Edition
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-064-8

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