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The evolving information systems (IS) field has been the subject ofmuch research and observation in recent years. Much of the work has beenUS based. By contrast, this…
The evolving information systems (IS) field has been the subject of much research and observation in recent years. Much of the work has been US based. By contrast, this empirical survey analyses the current state of IS practices within UK‐based organizations. The survey evaluates the extent of computer usage within the UK at a general level, as well as focusing on specific areas such as management support systems, IS strategic planning and strategic alignment of business and IS. Where possible, compares the results of this survey with previous surveys and forecasts, and analyses differences. Identifies topics worthy of further investigation.
The purpose of this paper is to attempt to investigate how Information and Communications Technology (ICT) researchers in UK computing departments address ethics in their…
The purpose of this paper is to attempt to investigate how Information and Communications Technology (ICT) researchers in UK computing departments address ethics in their research. Whilst research and innovation in ICT has blossomed in the last two decades, the ethical, social and legal challenges they present have also increased. However, the increasing attention the technical development receives has not been replicated in the area of developing effective guidelines that can address the moral issues inherent in ICT research.
This research is qualitative and made use of interviews. The data analysis was done with dialectical hermeneutics. Through a dialectical hermeneutic process, this research unpacks different understandings of relevance attached to ethics reviews of ICT research in UK computing departments.
The findings include that ethics reviews are relevant because; it is a moral duty, it improves trust for researchers, it is part of risk assessment, it is in compliance with the law and it is a sustainable act.
These various understandings illustrate an important dialectic process on the current state of the art in ICT research.
It asks to what degree the currently dominant model of ethics review based on biomedical ethics is optimal to ICT.
It proposes a framework that can effectively help researchers and administrators to ensure responsible research and innovation in ICT. Finally, it identifies that ICT researchers would benefit from the developing repertoire of responsible research innovation.
Advances in information provision have led organizations to attempt todevelop IS/IT strategies which interrelate with their businessstrategies and which together support…
Advances in information provision have led organizations to attempt to develop IS/IT strategies which interrelate with their business strategies and which together support corporate missions. Strategic information systems planning (SISP) has become an accepted part of the overall corporate strategic planning process. The proliferation of methods and the variations in satisfaction indicate a need to provide a framework for classifying and comparing SISP approaches which will provide guidance on use and to explain why certain approaches are more commonly used than others. Develops a classification framework based on complexity and describes tools for using the framework. Provides indication as to the nature of a complete classification and comparison method for SISP based on complexity, scope and fit.
It may be reasonably argued that the advent of modern communications technologies should manifest itself to some extent in a change in the behavioural patterns of their…
It may be reasonably argued that the advent of modern communications technologies should manifest itself to some extent in a change in the behavioural patterns of their users. Indeed, if no such changes occur it may prove difficult to justify the introduction of these technologies. Particularly, one might expect that the locations in which people perform their daily tasks should be impacted to some degree by improved communication facilities. A recent diary study of managerial work in UK organisations, conducted by the authors, suggests that the locational patterns of managers in the work‐place appear not to have changed significantly, if at all, over the past 30 years, despite the rapid technological changes that have taken place during that era. Additionally, the use of the conventional telephone has remained constant during that period despite technological improvements and the introduction of alternative technologies such as fax, electronic mail, cellular phones, messaging services and video‐conferencing. These findings suggest that the communication habits of managers are not significantly influenced by the introduction of new technologies, but rather that their work patterns are probably set by more complex factors that may be organisational, psychological or sociological in nature.
Chance models – mechanisms that explain empirical regularities through unsystematic variance – have a long tradition in the sciences but have been historically marginalized in management scholarship, relative to an agentic worldview about the role of managers and organizations. An exception is the work of James G. March and his coauthors, who proposed a variety of chance models that explain important management phenomena, including the careers of top executives, managerial risk taking, and organizational anarchy, learning, and adaptation. This paper serves as a tribute to the beauty of these “little ideas” and demonstrates how they can be recombined to generate novel implications. In particular, we focus on the example of an inverted V-shaped performance association centering around the year when executives were featured in a prominent listing, Barron’s annual list of Top 30 chief executive officers. Our recombination of several chance models developed by March and his coauthors provides a novel explanation for why many of the executives’ exceptional performances did not persist. In contrast to the common accounts of complacency, hubris, and statistical regression, the results show that declines from high performance may result from the way luck interacts with these executives’ slow adaptation, incompetence, and self-reinforced risk taking. We conclude by elaborating on the normative implications of chance models, which address many current management and societal challenges. We further encourage the continued development of chance models to help explain performance differences, shifting from accounts that favor heroic stories of corporate leaders toward accounts that favor their changing fortunes.
The chapter describes the phenomenon of company–community agreements in the mining sector, situates them relative to two veins of responsible investment activity, and…
The chapter describes the phenomenon of company–community agreements in the mining sector, situates them relative to two veins of responsible investment activity, and assesses whether they might serve as a proxy for the “community relations” expectations of responsible investors.
Based on an evaluation of two recent company–community agreements and surveying of executives from mining firms that have signed agreements with Indigenous communities, it was found that: (1) though imperfect as a proxy for many of the “community relations” expectations of responsible investors, company–community agreements offer benefits and make provisions that exceed current expectations, especially with respect to the recognition of the right of Indigenous communities to offer their free, prior, and informed consent to mine developments; and (2) mining executives recognize the utility of agreement-making with communities, and are comfortable with such efforts being interpreted as recognition of the right of Indigenous communities to consent to development.
The chapter serves to introduce responsible investors to the emergence of company–community agreements in the global mining sector, and calls upon them to advocate for their further use in order to reduce the riskiness of their investments, address social justice concerns, and assist communities to visualize and realize their goals.
Originality/value of chapter
For the first time, the growing phenomenon of company–community agreements in the mining sector is situated within responsible investment scholarship. Additionally, drawing on both logic and evidence, the chapter challenges the responsible investment community to rethink its approach to screening and engaging the mining sector in order to advance the interests of Indigenous communities.
This paper examines the determinants of success in seeking local government earmarked funding. We compile data of the aggregate amounts of the New York City Council…
This paper examines the determinants of success in seeking local government earmarked funding. We compile data of the aggregate amounts of the New York City Council discretionary expense grants received or requested by each council district every year during 2011-2013. The statistical results show that the allocation of the expense grants are politically motivated with more earmark funds flowing to the districts council leaders and key committee chairpersons represent. Furthermore, constituents of key committee chairpersons are more successful in the earmarking process. Districts with larger African American population have lower success ratios possibly because they request significantly more earmarks. These empirical findings are consistent with anecdotal perceptions that earmarking is not substantially effective in meeting community need.
The need for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to support evidence‐based services to improve outcomes for children is increasingly recognised by researchers and…
The need for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to support evidence‐based services to improve outcomes for children is increasingly recognised by researchers and policy‐makers. However, this brings a pressing requirement to build research capacity for conducting RCTs and to address the concerns of practitioners who may be suspicious about the method. This article reviews a variety of texts on the subject, ranging from analyses of the historical and political context of RCTs, to concise introductions of the key methodological and practical issues, to more in‐depth discussions of complex designs and statistics. The article seeks to help readers navigate these resources by focusing on seven questions that seem particularly salient for those considering whether and how to commission, undertake, participate in or use results from RCTs.
EVEN if library work with the young is the most written, and over‐written, subject in librarianship as is sometimes alleged, it still is the foundation of all library activity and must therefore come under continuous review. To some the subject is as dull as the essay questions set in the Entrance Examinations were alleged to be by a writer in The Library Assistant. To which we reply that all things have a certain dullness to those without sufficient imagination to look at them in other than the most conventional darkness. A Chesterton discourses entrancingly on a piece of chalk and brown paper, an empty train, a piece of string. So with our subject. We therefore make no other apology than this for a number of THE LIBRARY WORLD in which it is our main interest. Our children's libraries are, as yet, far from perfect; they issue too many drivelling books written by authors whose first essays in writing are children's books because they think them to be the easiest to write. The difference between a Ransome and—well, a thousand slush children's books—is as great as the difference between The Vicar of Wakefield and worst railway bookstall novelette. There is a great field being examined here by the more progressive children's librarians. There are many other questions, administrative and personal that have been and are under discussion. The writer of Letters on Our Affairs this month deals with some of these although, we may at once say, his views are not wholly those of THE LIBRARY WORLD.