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Book part
Publication date: 30 May 2022

Daniela Jauk, Brenda Gill, Christie Caruana and Sharon Everhardt

The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the impact of COVID-19 on the invisible incarcerated women population who are convicted of a crime and serving a sentence in a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the impact of COVID-19 on the invisible incarcerated women population who are convicted of a crime and serving a sentence in a residential correctional facility in the United States (US). Even though correctional populations have been declining in the past years, the extent of mass incarceration has been a significant public health concern even before the pandemic. Moreover, the global spread of COVID-19 continues to have devastating effects in all the world's societies, and it has exacerbated existing social inequalities within the US carceral complex.

Methodology/Approach

We base our findings on data collection from two comparative clinical sociological garden interventions in a large Southeastern women's prison and a Midwestern residential community correctional facility for women. Both are residential correctional facilities for residents convicted of a crime. In contrast, in prison, women are serving longer-term sentences, and in the community corrections facility, women typically are housed for six months. We have developed and carried out educational garden programming and related research on both sites over the past two years and observe more closely the impact of COVID-19 on incarcerated women and their communities, which has aggravated the invisibility and marginalization of incarcerated women who suffered a lack of programming and insufficient research attention already before the pandemic.

Findings

We argue that prison gardens' educational programming has provided some respite from the hardships of the pandemic and is a promising avenue of correctional rehabilitation and programming that fosters sustainability, healthier nutrition, and mental health among participants.

Originality of Chapter

Residential correctional facilities are distinctively sited to advance health equity and community health within a framework of sustainability, especially during a pandemic. We focus on two residential settings for convicted women serving a sentence in a prison or a residential community corrections facility that offers rehabilitation and educational programming. Women are an underserved population within the US carceral system, and it is thus essential to develop more programming and research for their benefit.

Details

Systemic Inequality, Sustainability and COVID-19
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-733-7

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 30 May 2022

Abstract

Details

Systemic Inequality, Sustainability and COVID-19
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-733-7

Article
Publication date: 1 September 1997

Albert Caruana and Claire Carey

Many professionals abhor the thought of marketing their services. Marketing is assumed to be merely advertising and it is widely believed that advertising commercialises and hence…

Abstract

Many professionals abhor the thought of marketing their services. Marketing is assumed to be merely advertising and it is widely believed that advertising commercialises and hence demeans professional services (Chan, 1992; Darling and Hackett, 1978). Although restrictions on advertising have been removed or relaxed in a number of countries, many professionals and their associations still regard advertising with suspicion and regulate its use. This is perhaps nowhere more so than with medical professionals. A fundamental rule set by medical professional associations in European and North American countries is that the doctor's job is not a business. More explicitly, the Medical Council in Luxembourg specifies that medicine cannot be exercised ‘as a business’. While it is perfectly acceptable for other professions to declare that profit is the enterprise's driving force, such a statement would go completely against the professional conscience of the medical profession. Medical practitioners are expected to observe a high ethical code. Respect for life should come before any other consideration. However, the medical professional's ability to survive depends as much on marketing as on his specialised technical skills. A different marketing approach from that used conventionally in the business sector may be needed, but the utility of marketing cannot be denied. Like businesspersons, medical practitioners also network with their market by being active within the community. These and other actions all contribute to make the individual a well‐known figure within the area of his practice (Gelb, Smith and Gelb, 1988). Medical practitioners in the various countries frequently belong to national medical professional associations. These often have legal standing, and are empowered to issue regulations and sanction non compliance on many aspects relating to the profession including advertising. This study first aims to position within a North American and European perspective the approach to advertising adopted by the Malta Medical Council. Secondly, it seeks to empirically investigate (1) the attitude of Maltese medical practitioners towards advertising by their profession, and (2) the attitude of the Maltese general public towards advertising by medical practitioners. In America, the general public have been found to have a more positive attitude towards advertising than medical practitioners and professionals in general (Darling and Hackett, 1978; Dyer and Shimp, 1980; Miller and Waller, 1979). Similarly, we expect that in Malta medical practitioners will exhibit a more negative attitude towards advertising than the general public.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 20 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

Article
Publication date: 8 April 2014

Stephen K. Nkundabanyanga, Charles Omagor and Irene Nalukenge

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of the fraud triangle, Machiavellianism, academic misconduct and corporate social responsibility (CSR) proclivity of students…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of the fraud triangle, Machiavellianism, academic misconduct and corporate social responsibility (CSR) proclivity of students.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study surveyed 471 university students. The study was cross-sectional and employed structural equation modelling in statistical modelling.

Findings

The study provides evidence that perceived opportunity to cheat in examinations is the single most important factor accounting for significant variations in rationalization and academic misconduct. Similarly, low Machiavellians significantly get inclined to CSR ideals. The fraud triangle alone accounts for 36 per cent of the variations in academic misconduct, hence the error variance is 64 per cent of academic misconduct itself. This error variance increases to 78 per cent when a combination of perceived opportunity, rationalization, Machiavellianism is considered. Moreover, both Machiavellianism and academic misconduct account for 17 per cent of variations in students’ proclivity to CSR ideals.

Research limitations/implications

Results imply that creating a setting that significantly increases a student's anticipated negative affect from academic misconduct, or effectively impedes rationalization ex ante, might prevent some students from academic misconduct in the first place and then they will become good African corporate citizens. Nevertheless, although the unit of analysis was students, these were from a single university – something akin to a case study. The quantitative results should therefore be interpreted with this shortcoming in mind.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the search for predictors of academic misconduct in the African setting and as a corollary, for a theory explaining academic misconduct. Those students perceiving opportunity to cheat in examinations are also able to rationalize and hence engage in academic misconduct. This rationalization is enhanced or reduced through Machiavellianism.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 21 May 2019

John N. Moye

Abstract

Details

Learning Differentiated Curriculum Design in Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-117-4

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 4 July 2024

Caroline Aggestam Pontoppidan, Marco Bisogno, Josette Caruana and Giovanna Dabbicco

This study aims to explore natural resources from a public sector accounting perspective, focusing on their definitions, classifications, recognition criteria and disclosure…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore natural resources from a public sector accounting perspective, focusing on their definitions, classifications, recognition criteria and disclosure requirements provided by different standard-setters and regulators at both international and national levels.

Design/methodology/approach

By reviewing accounting frameworks for natural resources, this study extrapolates accounting dilemmas around the debate on natural resource accounting, using the dialogic accounting perspective as a theoretical framework.

Findings

Natural resources cannot be defined as a single category. Various categories have different characteristics, requiring different standards to recognize multiple orientations. This avoids monetary reductionism. Furthermore, uncertainty, both in existence and measurement, may disqualify some of these resources from being considered assets. Perhaps, concentrating on the flow of services derived from natural resources is better than focusing on their valuation. This may lead to a split-asset approach (flows and underlying assets) for certain resources. This study’s findings indicate that public-sector entities should consider preparing a separate non-financial report regarding the management of natural resources with the objective of maintaining inter-generational equity.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the debate on natural resources from an accounting and reporting perspective, highlighting the importance of holding public-sector entities accountable for the use of natural resources.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 32 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-372X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 21 May 2019

John N. Moye

Abstract

Details

Learning Differentiated Curriculum Design in Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-117-4

Book part
Publication date: 26 September 2002

Michael T. Ewing, Albert Caruana and Andy Teo

While considerable prior research has focused on the development of standardized viewer response scales in advertising, such studies have, without exception, taken an emic…

Abstract

While considerable prior research has focused on the development of standardized viewer response scales in advertising, such studies have, without exception, taken an emic approach. In other words, the scales have first been developed in one country, often the U.S., and then validated or replicated in other countries. Emic approaches have obvious limitations in an increasingly multicultural environment. By contrast, we offer a simple uni-dimensional advertising response scale developed following an etic approach, in which a universal measurement structure across cultures is sought using multiple cultures simultaneously. Psychometric tests demonstrate that the new scale is reliable, valid, parsimonious and generalizable across cultures and product categories. Theory-building and managerial implications of the approach are discussed, limitations noted and future research directions outlined.

Details

New Directions in International Advertising Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-950-4

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