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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2013

Svend Hollensen and Christian Schimmelpfennig

This paper aims at shedding some light on the various avenues marketers can undertake until finally an endorsement contract is signed. The focus of the study lies on…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims at shedding some light on the various avenues marketers can undertake until finally an endorsement contract is signed. The focus of the study lies on verifying the generally held assumption that endorser selection is usually taken care of by creative agencies, vetting several candidates by means of subtle evaluation procedures.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study research has been carried out among companies experienced in celebrity endorsements to learn more about the endorser selection process in practise. Based on these cases theory is inductively developed.

Findings

The research suggests that the generally held assumption that endorsers being selected and thoroughly vetted by a creative agency may not be universally valid. A normative model to illustrate the continuum of the selection process in practise is suggested and the two polar case studies (Swiss brand Lindt and Austrian Vitatherm) are presented in depth.

Research limitations/implications

As the results of the study suggest, generally held assumptions towards the endorser selection process may be challenged. Consequently, this affects the necessary accuracy of models to evaluate the brand‐endorser matchup.

Practical implications

Conducted case studies indicate that there are various avenues how brands come to their endorser. This paper could not find evidence of a best practice strategy.

Originality/value

A normative model for the celebrity endorser selection process is suggested.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 January 2022

Eugene Cheng-Xi Aw, Garry Wei-Han Tan, Stephanie Hui-Wen Chuah, Keng-Boon Ooi and Nick Hajli

The emergence of social media has brought the influencer marketing landscape to an unprecedented level, where many ordinary people are turning into social media…

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Abstract

Purpose

The emergence of social media has brought the influencer marketing landscape to an unprecedented level, where many ordinary people are turning into social media influencers. The study aims to construct and validate a model to yield strategic insights on the relevance of content curation, influencer–fans interaction and parasocial relationships development in fostering favorable endorsement outcomes (i.e. purchase intention).

Design/methodology/approach

The present study analyzes data from a survey of 411 consumers using partial least squares-structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) and fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to understand the net and combined effects of content attributes, interaction strategies and parasocial relationships on purchase intention.

Findings

PLS-SEM results reveal that content attributes (i.e. prestige and expertise) and interaction strategies (i.e. interactivity and self-disclosure) positively influence parasocial relationships, and in turn, lead to high purchase intention. Findings from fsQCA indicate six solutions with different combinations of content attributes, interaction strategies and parasocial relationships that sufficiently explain high purchase intention.

Originality/value

The present study demonstrates the roles of content attributes and interaction strategies in engendering parasocial relationship and the endorsement outcome (i.e. purchase intention) from both linear and non-linear (complexity) perspectives.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 July 2021

Shekhar Shukla and Ashish Dubey

Quantitative objective studies on the problem of celebrity selection are lacking. Furthermore, existing research does not recognize the group decision-making nature and…

Abstract

Purpose

Quantitative objective studies on the problem of celebrity selection are lacking. Furthermore, existing research does not recognize the group decision-making nature and the possibility of customer involvement in celebrity or influencer selection for social media marketing. This study conceptualizes celebrity selection as a multi-attribute group decision-making problem while deriving the final ranking of celebrities/influencers using interactive and flexible criteria based on the value tradeoff approach. The article thus proposes and demonstrates a quantitative objective method of celebrity selection for a brand or campaign in an interactive manner incorporating customer's preferences as well.

Design/methodology/approach

Each decision-maker's preferences for celebrity selection criteria are objectively captured and converted into an overall group preference using a modified generalized fuzzy evaluation method (MGFEM). The final ranking of celebrities is then derived from an interactive and criteria-based value tradeoff approach using the flexible and interactive tradeoff method.

Findings

The approach gives a different ranking of celebrities for two campaigns based on group members' perceived importance of the selection criteria in different scenarios. This group includes decision-makers (DMs) from the brand, marketing communication agency and brand's customers. Further, each group member has an almost equal say in the decision-making based on fuzzy evaluation and an interactive and flexible value tradeoff approach to celebrity selection for receiving a rank order.

Research limitations/implications

The approach uses secondary data on celebrities and hypothetical scenarios. Comparison with other methods is difficult, as no other study proposes a multi-criteria group decision-making approach to celebrity selection especially in a social media context.

Practical implications

This approach can help DMs make more informed, objective and effective decisions on celebrity selection for their brands or campaigns. It recognizes that there are multiple stakeholders, including the end customers, each of whose views is objectively considered in the aspects of group decision-making through a fuzzy evaluation method. Further, this study provides a selection mechanism for a given context of endorsement by objectively and interactively encapsulating stakeholder preferences.

Originality/value

This robust and holistic approach to celebrity selection can help DMs objectively make consensual decisions with partial or complete information. This quantitative approach contributes to the literature on selection mechanisms of influencers, celebrities, social media opinion leaders etc. by providing a methodological aid that encompasses aspects of interactive group decision-making for a given context. Moreover, this method is useful to DMs and stakeholders in understanding and incorporating the effect of nature or context of the brand and the campaign type in the selection of a celebrity or an influencer.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 November 2021

Jakeun Koo

The present study aims to examine how consumers evaluate the extended human brands of athlete celebrities beyond their unique brand personality associated with sports…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study aims to examine how consumers evaluate the extended human brands of athlete celebrities beyond their unique brand personality associated with sports. Athlete celebrities' unique image in sports is used as a human brand, and attitude toward the athlete brand extensions is investigated when the athlete's name is included in a new non-sport brand. The concepts of brand extensions were employed to develop the ideas of human brand extensions.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 198 participants answered online survey questions before and after being informed of athlete brand extensions. Partial least squares structural equation modeling is utilized to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The survey results indicated that athlete–product fit and image transfer positively influenced attitude toward the extension. In addition, attitude toward the athlete brand extensions was significantly influenced by consumers' pre-existing attitude toward the celebrity; however, not by celebrity's expertise.

Originality/value

The research findings imply that some brand extension concepts are applicable to human brands to understand the effectiveness of athlete brand extensions for non-sport products.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 August 2014

Nicholas Tuszynski and Walter E. Block

The purpose of this paper is to discuss a unique principal–agent dilemma, one that is very much off the beaten track. The relationship of the Popes pre-1500 and God was…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss a unique principal–agent dilemma, one that is very much off the beaten track. The relationship of the Popes pre-1500 and God was one full of emptiness and strain. The Catholic Church was saved by a positive externality of the printing press (technology) that guided the Papacy to act more ethically and, thus, we presume in the best interest of God.

Design/methodology/approach

We utilize a historical and an economic analysis to probe the phenomenon that the goals of the principal and the agent are not always congruent. How the former entices the latter to do his bidding is an issue on which economists have long focused. We apply it to an unusual historical episode.

Findings

There were numerous corrupt popes during the medieval times of the Catholic Church and the number seemed to lessen and then even approach zero asymptotically after the printing press was invented. The Protestant reformation was a driving force, and this too, we argue, would have been nearly impossible were it not also for the printing press.

Originality/value

This is a contribution to the economic subfield of the economics of religion. It explores how the dismal science can make a contribution to our understanding of matters of faith. It looks at religion not from a theological point of view, the more usual departure, but from the perspective of economics.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

Keywords

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