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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2021

Gemma Bridge, Beth Armstrong, Christian Reynolds, Changqiong Wang, Ximena Schmidt, Astrid Kause, Charles Ffoulkes, Coleman Krawczyk, Grant Miller, Stephen Serjeant and Libby Oakden

The study aims to compare survey recruitment rates between Facebook, Twitter and Qualtrics and to assess the impact of recruitment method on estimates of energy content…

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Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to compare survey recruitment rates between Facebook, Twitter and Qualtrics and to assess the impact of recruitment method on estimates of energy content, food safety, carbon footprint and animal welfare across 29 foods.

Design/methodology/approach

Two versions of an online survey were developed on the citizen science platform, Zooniverse. The surveys explored citizen estimations of energy density (kcal) or carbon footprint (Co2) and food safety or animal welfare of 29 commonly eaten foods. Survey recruitment was conducted via paid promotions on Twitter and Facebook and via paid respondent invites on Qualtrics. The study included approximately 500 participants (Facebook, N˜11 (ratings 358), Twitter, N˜85 (ratings 2,184), Qualtrics, N = 398 (ratings 11,910)). Kruskal–Wallis and Chi-square analyses compared citizen estimations with validated values and assessed the impact of the variables on estimations.

Findings

Citizens were unable to accurately estimate carbon footprint and energy content, with most citizens overestimating values. Citizen estimates were most accurate for meat products. Qualtrics was the most successful recruitment method for the online survey. Citizen estimates between platforms were significantly different, suggesting that Facebook and Twitter may not be suitable recruitment methods for citizen online surveys.

Practical implications

Qualtrics was the favourable platform for survey recruitment. However, estimates across all recruitment platforms were poor. As paid recruitment methods such as Qualtrics are costly, the authors recommend continued examination of the social media environment to develop appropriate, affordable and timely online recruitment strategies for citizen science.

Originality/value

The findings indicate that citizens are unable to accurately estimate the carbon footprint and energy content of foods suggesting a focus on consumer education is needed to enable consumers to move towards more sustainable and healthy diets. Essential if we are to meet the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals of zero hunger, good health and wellbeing and responsible consumption and production. The study highlights the utility of Zooniverse for assessing citizen estimates of carbon footprint, energy content, animal welfare and safety of foods.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 3 November 2020

Miriam Clare Dobson, Christian Reynolds, Philip H. Warren and Jill L. Edmondson

Participation in urban horticulture (UH) is increasing in popularity, and evidence is emerging about the wide range of social and environmental benefits “grow your own”…

Abstract

Purpose

Participation in urban horticulture (UH) is increasing in popularity, and evidence is emerging about the wide range of social and environmental benefits “grow your own” can also provide. UH can increase mental and physical well-being, as well as improve nature connectedness, social capital and community cohesion.

Design/methodology/approach

This study focusses on allotments, which is one of the dominant forms of UH that takes place in the United Kingdom. 163 volunteers in England and Wales participated in keeping a year-long allotment diary as part of a citizen science project investigating activities on allotment gardens. This study examines the unprompted comments that 96 of these gardeners offered as observations when visiting their allotment plots.

Findings

Participants recorded high levels of social and community activities including the sharing of surplus food produce, knowledge exchange, awareness and interaction with wildlife, emotional connection to their allotment, appreciation of time spent outside and aesthetic delight in the natural world around them.

Originality/value

At a time when waiting lists for allotment plots in the United Kingdom are on the rise, and allotment land is subject to multiple pressures from other forms of development, this study demonstrates that these spaces are important sites not only for food production but also health, social capital and environmental engagement.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Abstract

Purpose

The current pilot study explored food insecurity, food waste, food related behaviours and cooking confidence of UK consumers following the COVID-19 lockdown.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 473 UK-based consumers (63% female) in March 2020. A cross-sectional online survey measured variables including food insecurity prevalence, self-reported food waste, food management behaviours, confidence and frequency of use of a range of cooking methods, type of food eaten (ultra-processed, semi-finished, unprocessed) and packaging type foods are purchased in.

Findings

39% of participants have experienced some food insecurity in the last 12 months. Being younger, having a greater BMI and living in a smaller household were associated with food insecurity. Green leaves, carrots, potatoes and sliced bread are the most wasted of purchased foods. Polenta, green leaves and white rice are the most wasted cooked foods. Food secure participants reported wasting a smaller percentage of purchased and cooked foods compared to food insecure participants. Overall, participants were most confident about boiling, microwaving and stir-frying and least confident with using a pressure cooker or sous vide. Food secure participants were more confident with boiling, stir-frying, grilling and roasting than insecure food participants.

Practical implications

This has implications for post lockdown policy, including food policies and guidance for public-facing communications.

Originality/value

We identified novel differences in self-report food waste behaviours and cooking confidence between the food secure and insecure consumers and observed demographics associated with food insecurity.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2007

Peter L. Francia

Popular accounts of the labor movement suggest that unions have become weak organizations. There are, however, trends that indicate laborʼs political power has not waned…

Abstract

Popular accounts of the labor movement suggest that unions have become weak organizations. There are, however, trends that indicate laborʼs political power has not waned in recent years. Using data from multiple sources, the results in this study indicate: (1) despite declines in union density, the percentage of union households has remained steady for two decades; (2) unions continue to produce a strong Democratic vote from its membership, even from its white male members; (3) unions are among the top campaign contributors and spenders in American elections; (4) unions hold significant influence among congressional Democrats and have made gains at the state and local level; and (5) public opinion of labor unions has remained consistently positive for several decades.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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Book part
Publication date: 16 April 2014

Rich DeJordy, Brad Almond, Richard Nielsen and W. E. Douglas Creed

In this article, we use the case of religious research universities to explore the presence of multiple institutional logics with the potential for contradiction and…

Abstract

In this article, we use the case of religious research universities to explore the presence of multiple institutional logics with the potential for contradiction and conflict. In particular, building on existing research on conflicting institutional logics, we assess the most common forms of resolution (replacement, dominant logic, decoupling, compartmentalization, and coexistence) and identify the potential for a new form of resolution – a transformative outcome that resolves the conflicts through adoption of a superordinate logic. Drawing on the history of Baylor University, we illustrate different forms of resolution, proposing its most recent efforts may represent a transformative outcome. We close by presenting a model for resolving institutional contradictions which suggest some resolutions may trigger cycles of institutionalization and deinstitutionalization when they are inherently unstable because they mitigate rather than resolve the conflict between institutional logics.

Details

Religion and Organization Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-693-4

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Book part
Publication date: 10 June 2019

Jenna Reinbold

The 2015 Obergefell v. Hodges decision accomplished more than the national legalization of same-sex marriage; it also laid bare a deep rift among US Supreme Court justices…

Abstract

The 2015 Obergefell v. Hodges decision accomplished more than the national legalization of same-sex marriage; it also laid bare a deep rift among US Supreme Court justices over the question of whether and how religious objections to same-sex marriage should be accommodated in this new era of marriage equality. This chapter will explore the rift revealed in Obergefell between the Court’s differing conceptions of religious free exercise and will highlight the ways in which this legal dispute was translated into a forceful mode of conservative religious activism in the buildup to the groundbreaking 2016 election.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics, and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-727-1

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2014

Cheng-Hsing Hsu, Jaw-Ren Lin, Lian-Jong Mou and Chia-Chuan Kuo

– The purpose of this paper is to present a theoretical study of non-Newtonian effects in conical squeeze-film plates that is based on the Rabinowitsch fluid model.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a theoretical study of non-Newtonian effects in conical squeeze-film plates that is based on the Rabinowitsch fluid model.

Design/methodology/approach

A non-linear, modified Reynolds equation accounting for the non-Newtonian properties following the cubic stress law equation is derived. Through a small perturbation method, first-order closed-form solutions are obtained.

Findings

It is found that the non-Newtonian properties of dilatant fluids increase the load capacity and lengthen the response time as compared to the case using a Newtonian lubricant; however, the non-Newtonian behaviors of pseudoplastic lubricants result in reverse influences.

Originality/value

Numerical tables for squeeze-film loads of conical plates are also provided for engineering applications.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 66 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2020

Daniel Klatt, Alina Mielke and Christian Mundt

Spinning slender bodies are affected by lateral Magnus forces and moments when exposed to cross-flow. The effects occurring for spinning bodies of revolution in…

Abstract

Purpose

Spinning slender bodies are affected by lateral Magnus forces and moments when exposed to cross-flow. The effects occurring for spinning bodies of revolution in combination with stabilising or control surfaces such as canards are not yet fully explained. Therefore the present work aims to investigate the phenomena arising from the interactions of a roll-decoupled guidance unit with a spinning rear body are investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

A generic tangential-ogive-cylinder projectile equipped with deflectable canards on a roll-decoupled nose is investigated by means of 3D Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes simulations at Mach number 2 for angles of attack up to 22 degrees. Different canard deflection angles up to 9 degrees are considered. Global aerodynamic coefficients as well as local flow fields are analysed to explain the interactions occurring between the roll-decoupled guidance unit and the spinning rear body.

Findings

The deflected canards lead to flow interactions resulting in lateral forces and moments even without a spinning motion of the rear part. Depending on the canard deflection angles, these forces act in or against the direction of the classical Magnus effect. For angles of attack smaller than 10 degrees it is possible for the current body geometry to directly superpose the lateral effects resulting from the fins for the non-spinning model with those occurring for the non-finned but spinning model to obtain the total forces and moments acting on a spinning model with canted canards. However, the lateral effects generated on the guidance unit itself are insignificant compared to the canard-induced effects on the rear body.

Originality/value

A detailed analysis of the interaction effects arising from a decoupled guidance unit containing canards with a non-spinning/spinning rear body is performed and the underlying phenomena are revealed.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2008

Katherine Wiegand, C. Douglas Johnson, Bryan Dawson and Mathew Ward

The purpose of this paper is to test the idea that symbols can serve as a cue to group membership and to assess discrimination towards working with individuals displaying…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the idea that symbols can serve as a cue to group membership and to assess discrimination towards working with individuals displaying certain symbols – the ichthus, the gay pride symbol and the Confederate flag.

Design/methodology/approach

This study looked at one particular method (i.e. clothing worn) of revealing one's attitude towards an issue or group, such as the Confederacy or Christianity. This study was designed to test selection preferences for three different symbols each against a control group. The experimental independent variable of symbol had four levels (control, ichthus, gay pride triangle, and Confederate flag). Two subject variables were tested as moderating variables (ethnic identity and Christian identity). Each of these was measured via a questionnaire, and a median split on scores was used to create two groups: strong and weak identity for each scale. The dependent variable was the selection preference for the target individual. Participants were 265 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory psychology and management classes.

Findings

It was confirmed that there are many signs that people give off in their verbal and non‐verbal behavior that reveal bits and pieces of their personality and ideologies.

Originality/value

The discrimination that students showed in this study reveals the importance of training those who may go into management roles and be involved in selection decisions to be aware of their natural tendencies to categorize people and the behavioral outcomes this can have.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2003

Cheng‐Hsing Hsu, Jaw‐Ren Lin and Hsiu‐Lu Chiang

According to the Stokes microcontinuum theorem and Christensen's stochastic model, the main objective of this paper is to theoretically predict the combined influences of…

Abstract

According to the Stokes microcontinuum theorem and Christensen's stochastic model, the main objective of this paper is to theoretically predict the combined influences of couple stresses and surface roughness on the lubrication performance of journal‐bearing systems. To take account of the presence of both the surface roughness of bearings and the couple stress effect due to the lubricant containing the polar suspensions, the generalized stochastic non‐Newtonian Reynolds‐type equation is derived. Compared to the Newtonian‐lubricant smooth‐bearing case, the couple stress effects and the longitudinal roughness improve the load carrying capacity, and thus decrease the attitude angle and friction parameter, while the effect of transverse roughness is opposite to that of the longitudinal one in the journal‐bearing system.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 55 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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