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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2016

Christian Nitzl, Jose L. Roldan and Gabriel Cepeda

Indirect or mediated effects constitute a type of relationship between constructs that often occurs in partial least squares (PLS) path modeling. Over the past few years…

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7276

Abstract

Purpose

Indirect or mediated effects constitute a type of relationship between constructs that often occurs in partial least squares (PLS) path modeling. Over the past few years, the methods for testing mediation have become more sophisticated. However, many researchers continue to use outdated methods to test mediating effects in PLS, which can lead to erroneous results. One reason for the use of outdated methods or even the lack of their use altogether is that no systematic tutorials on PLS exist that draw on the newest statistical findings. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This study illustrates the state-of-the-art use of mediation analysis in the context of PLS-structural equation modeling (SEM).

Findings

This study facilitates the adoption of modern procedures in PLS-SEM by challenging the conventional approach to mediation analysis and providing more accurate alternatives. In addition, the authors propose a decision tree and classification of mediation effects.

Originality/value

The recommended approach offers a wide range of testing options (e.g. multiple mediators) that go beyond simple mediation analysis alternatives, helping researchers discuss their studies in a more accurate way.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 116 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2021

Fabienne-Sophie Schäfer, Bernhard Hirsch and Christian Nitzl

Drawing upon new institutional theory and blame avoidance theory, this paper aims to examine how stakeholder pressure has an impact on the implementation and use of risk…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing upon new institutional theory and blame avoidance theory, this paper aims to examine how stakeholder pressure has an impact on the implementation and use of risk management practices in public administrations. Furthermore, this paper investigates whether top management support mediates this proposed relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on a survey among public financial managers of German municipalities and federal agencies. Data from 136 questionnaires were used to evaluate the model.

Findings

The results indicate that top management support fully mediates the relationship between stakeholder pressure and risk management practices. This finding suggests that top management support is crucial for the successful implementation of accounting techniques, such as risk management, in public administrations.

Research limitations/implications

This study is based on subjective answers by public financial managers. Moreover, this study is based solely on German data. Hence, future research could use a mixed-method approach and data from other countries.

Originality/value

This paper examines whether stakeholder pressure exerts an impact on the sophistication of public risk management practices.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Christian Nitzl and Bernhard Hirsch

Because of the importance of accounting information to a manager’s decision-making process, his/her working relationship with his/her supporting management accountant is…

Abstract

Purpose

Because of the importance of accounting information to a manager’s decision-making process, his/her working relationship with his/her supporting management accountant is used as a paradigm of a superior-subordinate working relationship. This paper aims to analyze the drivers of trust in this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on responses from 446 managers, the authors tested a structural equation model for various trust drivers.

Findings

The authors found that when management accounting generally has a powerful role in a company, it positively affects the manager’s perceptions of his subordinate’s trustworthiness. Although the absolute level of trust remains stable over time, the influences of the bases of the trust change significantly. Over the long run, perceived trustworthiness fully mediates other trust factors, such as the manager’s trust disposition and the organizational setting, which highlights the importance of the individual trust relationship even for strong and functional superior–subordinate relationships.

Research limitations/implications

Consistent with other studies, the results contain the classic limitations of survey studies. This study investigates the drivers of trust and provides insights into the trust relationship between managers and management accountants. Future studies should verify these findings for other important work relationships.

Originality/value

Trust research has typically focused only indirectly on the relevance of the trust that a superior has in his supporting subordinate. The authors show how these trust drivers intertwine and how their influences shift over time.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2019

Wael Abdallah, Craig Johnson, Cristian Nitzl and Mohammed A. Mohammed

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between organizational learning and patient safety culture in hospital pharmacy settings as determined by the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between organizational learning and patient safety culture in hospital pharmacy settings as determined by the learning organization survey short-form (LOS-27) and pharmacy survey on patient safety culture instruments, and to further explore how dimensions of organizational learning relate to dimensions of pharmacy patient safety culture.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is a cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from three public hospital pharmacies and three private hospital pharmacies in Kuwait. Partial least square structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data.

Findings

A total of 272 surveys (59.1 percent response rate) were completed and returned. The results indicated a significant positive relationship between organizational learning and patient safety culture in hospital pharmacy settings (path coefficient of 0.826, p-value <0.05 and R2 of 0.683). Several dimensions of the organizational learning showed significant links to the various dimensions of the pharmacy patient safety culture. Specifically, training (TRN), management that reinforces learning (MRL) and supportive learning environment (SLE) had the strongest effects on the pharmacy patient safety culture dimensions. Moreover, these effects indicated that MRL, SLE and TRN were associated with improvements in most dimensions of pharmacy patient safety culture.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first attempt to assess the relationship between organizational learning, patient safety culture and their dimensions in hospital pharmacy settings.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article
Publication date: 23 April 2019

Katrin Hummel, Dieter Pfaff and Benedikt Bisig

This paper aims to draw on Adler and Borys’ (1996) concept of an enabling use of bureaucracy to examine how the integration of a single-book tax-compliant transfer pricing…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to draw on Adler and Borys’ (1996) concept of an enabling use of bureaucracy to examine how the integration of a single-book tax-compliant transfer pricing system into the management control system is related to the perceived success of that transfer pricing system.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on survey data from Swiss multinational firms, the authors test a structural equation model. In addition, the authors conduct interviews with executives from three multinational enterprises.

Findings

The authors find that the integration of a tax-compliant transfer pricing system into the management control system may be perceived to be successful in achieving both tax compliance and internal (control) purposes. This is particularly true when the transfer pricing system is transparent and can be amended in the case of fundamental management control problems.

Research limitations/implications

The typical shortcomings of a survey-based research apply to this study. Future research could build on this model and more closely investigate the relationship between transfer pricing system integration and an enabling use of the transfer pricing system.

Practical implications

Based on this study’s findings, the authors recommend that a strong integration of tax-compliant transfer prices into the management control system should be accompanied by internal transparency and the ability to repair the transfer pricing system.

Originality/value

Prior research on the integration between transfer pricing and management control systems has either been analytical or based on case studies. This cross-sectional analysis provides reliable insights into different levels of integration, use and the success of transfer pricing systems.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 17 October 2016

Jörg Henseler

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1062

Abstract

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 116 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Abstract

Details

Internet Research, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2019

Joseph F. Hair, Marko Sarstedt and Christian M. Ringle

Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) is an important statistical technique in the toolbox of methods that researchers in marketing and other social…

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2392

Abstract

Purpose

Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) is an important statistical technique in the toolbox of methods that researchers in marketing and other social sciences disciplines frequently use in their empirical analyses. The purpose of this paper is to shed light on several misconceptions that have emerged as a result of the proposed “new guidelines” for PLS-SEM. The authors discuss various aspects related to current debates on when or when not to use PLS-SEM, and which model evaluation metrics to apply. In addition, this paper summarizes several important methodological extensions of PLS-SEM researchers can use to improve the quality of their analyses, results and findings.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper merges literature from various disciplines, including marketing, strategic management, information systems, accounting and statistics, to present a state-of-the-art review of PLS-SEM. Based on these findings, the paper offers a point of orientation on how to consider and apply these latest developments when executing or assessing PLS-SEM-based research.

Findings

This paper offers guidance regarding situations that favor the use of PLS-SEM and discusses the need to consider certain model evaluation metrics. It also summarizes how to deal with endogeneity in PLS-SEM, and critically comments on the recent proposal to adjust PLS-SEM estimates to mimic common factor models that are the foundation of covariance-based SEM. Finally, this paper opposes characterizing common concepts and practices of PLS-SEM as “out-of-date” without providing well-substantiated alternatives and solutions.

Research limitations/implications

The paper paves the way for future discussions and suggests a way forward to reach consensus regarding situations that favor PLS-SEM use and its application.

Practical implications

This paper offers guidance on how to consider the latest methodological developments when executing or assessing PLS-SEM-based research.

Originality/value

This paper complements recently proposed “new guidelines” with the aim of offering a counter perspective on some strong claims made in the latest literature on PLS-SEM. It also clarifies some misconceptions regarding the application of PLS-SEM.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 53 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 14 January 2019

Joseph F. Hair, Jeffrey J. Risher, Marko Sarstedt and Christian M. Ringle

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive, yet concise, overview of the considerations and metrics required for partial least squares structural equation…

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50644

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive, yet concise, overview of the considerations and metrics required for partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) analysis and result reporting. Preliminary considerations are summarized first, including reasons for choosing PLS-SEM, recommended sample size in selected contexts, distributional assumptions, use of secondary data, statistical power and the need for goodness-of-fit testing. Next, the metrics as well as the rules of thumb that should be applied to assess the PLS-SEM results are covered. Besides presenting established PLS-SEM evaluation criteria, the overview includes the following new guidelines: PLSpredict (i.e., a novel approach for assessing a model’s out-of-sample prediction), metrics for model comparisons, and several complementary methods for checking the results’ robustness.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides an overview of previously and recently proposed metrics as well as rules of thumb for evaluating the research results based on the application of PLS-SEM.

Findings

Most of the previously applied metrics for evaluating PLS-SEM results are still relevant. Nevertheless, scholars need to be knowledgeable about recently proposed metrics (e.g. model comparison criteria) and methods (e.g. endogeneity assessment, latent class analysis and PLSpredict), and when and how to apply them to extend their analyses.

Research limitations/implications

Methodological developments associated with PLS-SEM are rapidly emerging. The metrics reported in this paper are useful for current applications, but must always be up to date with the latest developments in the PLS-SEM method.

Originality/value

In light of more recent research and methodological developments in the PLS-SEM domain, guidelines for the method’s use need to be continuously extended and updated. This paper is the most current and comprehensive summary of the PLS-SEM method and the metrics applied to assess its solutions.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 February 2019

Gohar F. Khan, Marko Sarstedt, Wen-Lung Shiau, Joseph F. Hair, Christian M. Ringle and Martin P. Fritze

The purpose of this paper is to explore the knowledge infrastructure of methodological research on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) from a…

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2312

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the knowledge infrastructure of methodological research on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) from a network point of view. The analysis involves the structures of authors, institutions, countries and co-citation networks, and discloses trending developments in the field.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on bibliometric data downloaded from the Web of Science, the authors apply various social network analysis (SNA) and visualization tools to examine the structure of knowledge networks of the PLS-SEM domain. Specifically, the authors investigate the PLS-SEM knowledge network by analyzing 84 methodological studies published in 39 journals by 145 authors from 106 institutions.

Findings

The analysis reveals that specific authors dominate the network, whereas most authors work in isolated groups, loosely connected to the network’s focal authors. Besides presenting the results of a country level analysis, the research also identifies journals that play a key role in disseminating knowledge in the network. Finally, a burst detection analysis indicates that method comparisons and extensions, for example, to estimate common factor model data or to leverage PLS-SEM’s predictive capabilities, feature prominently in recent research.

Originality/value

Addressing the limitations of prior systematic literature reviews on the PLS-SEM method, this is the first study to apply SNA to reveal the interrelated structures and properties of PLS-SEM’s research domain.

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