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The common understanding of generalization/specialization relations assumes the relation to be equally strong between a classifier and any of its related classifiers and…
The common understanding of generalization/specialization relations assumes the relation to be equally strong between a classifier and any of its related classifiers and also at every level of the hierarchy. Assigning a grade of relative distance to represent the level of similarity between the related pairs of classifiers could correct this situation, which has been considered as an oversimplification of the psychological account of the real-world relations. The paper aims to discuss these issues.
The evaluation followed an end-user perspective. In order to obtain a consistent data set of specialization distances, a group of 21 persons was asked to assign values to a set of relations from a selection of terms from the AGROVOC thesaurus. Then two sets of representations of the relations between the terms were built, one according to the calculated concept of specialization weights and the other one following the original order of the thesaurus. In total, 40 persons were asked to choose between the two sets following an A/B test-like experiment. Finally, short interviews were carried out after the test to inquiry about their decisions.
The results show that the use of this information could be a valuable tool for search and information retrieval purposes and for the visual representation of knowledge organization systems (KOS). Furthermore, the methodology followed in the study turned out to be useful for detecting inconsistencies in the thesaurus and could thus be used for quality control and optimization of the hierarchical relations.
The use of this relative distance information, namely, “concept specialization distance,” has been proposed mainly at a theoretical level. In the current experiment, the authors evaluate the potential use of this information from an end-user perspective, not only for text-based interfaces but also its application for the visual representation of KOS. Finally, the methodology followed for the elaboration of the concept specialization distance data set showed potential for detecting possible inconsistencies in KOS.
This paper presents the result of a document review on leisure and travel developments in mature Central European markets. Based on an extensive analysis of (1…
This paper presents the result of a document review on leisure and travel developments in mature Central European markets. Based on an extensive analysis of (1) socio‐demographic developments, (2) developments with regard to changing values, (3) developments with regard to the economic framework, (4) the future role of work, leisure and allocation of time here fore, (5) consumption trends, and (6) a number of singular other issues, implications for the tourism industry are drawn: (1) There is an increasing international standardisation (homogenisation) of basic service factors in terms of infrastructure and key service elements functionality, coupled with differentiating efforts in terms of specific service elements and experiences provided. (2) Due to and based on network advantages, future quantitative growth is basically triggered by large supply networks and travel corporations. (3) Growth will further take place at best suitable destinations in terms of securing time efficiency of travel experience, multi optionality of supply and international level of quality.
In the study presented here, travellers from Switzerland are segmented on the basis of their information collection, with respect to their motivation structure derived in…
In the study presented here, travellers from Switzerland are segmented on the basis of their information collection, with respect to their motivation structure derived in a study earlier this year. The study illustrates the important role of information in tourism. A successful strategy consists of providing convenience and of building up a trustful relation between the tourist company and the tourist. Hereby, convenience is determined by quality of admission, availability of information and a customer tailored presentation of information contents. A trustful source of information shall not only be provided by private relations (friends and relatives) but more and more by employees of travel agencies, tourist information and companies.