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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2020

Christian Grund, Dirk Sliwka and Krystina Titz

We analyze the role of works councils for the use of performance appraisals (PA). We distinguish between the incidence of PA systems as intended by the firm and their…

Abstract

Purpose

We analyze the role of works councils for the use of performance appraisals (PA). We distinguish between the incidence of PA systems as intended by the firm and their actual implementation on the level of the individual employee.

Design/methodology/approach

We draw on two complementary data sets. These are the German Linked Personnel Panel (LPP), which combines firm-based information with information provided by several of those employees, and the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), which is a representative longitudinal study of persons living in Germany.

Findings

We find that works councils tend to promote rather than restrict PA. Employees working in establishments with a works council are more likely to face a formal PA procedure. Works councils also act as a transmission institution for the actual use of an existing PA system – i.e. among the firms that claim to implement PA for all their employees, the likelihood of their employees actually having regular appraisals is substantially larger when works councils are in place. Moreover, the existence of works councils is positively related particularly to PA systems, which affects bonus payments.

Research limitations/implications

We contribute to the understanding of the work of works councils in firms. In more general, we shed light to the relation of industrial relations and human resource management in firms.

Practical implications

This result hints at a higher acceptance of PA systems in firms with works councils. It seems likely that the stronger formalization of such systems necessitated by codetermination laws increases the likelihood of supervisors consistently carrying out such appraisals.

Originality/value

We are the first who complement the analysis of the existence of HR practices (PA system) with its actual use for employees.

Details

Journal of Participation and Employee Ownership, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-7641

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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2019

Benedikt Gerst and Christian Grund

Career interruptions of employees imply important issues for both firms and individuals, including a possibly lower compensation after returning to a job. Different…

Abstract

Purpose

Career interruptions of employees imply important issues for both firms and individuals, including a possibly lower compensation after returning to a job. Different compensation components are explored, as bonus payments frequently complement fixed salaries for many employees, making various channels of lower compensation possible. This paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on a yearly salary survey among a rather homogeneous group of professionals and middle managers from the German chemical sector, which contains detailed information on compensation components next to individual and job characteristics. The incidence and duration of past career interruptions act as the most important independent variables. Mincer-type wage regressions are complemented by estimations on wage increases.

Findings

The results show that career interruptions are more related to lower subsequent bonus payments than they are to fixed salaries. Furthermore, interruptions caused by unemployment are associated with higher interruption pay gaps than those resulting from other reasons such as parental leave. The results even hint for catch-up effects following parental leave with regard to higher wage increases compared to individuals without interruptions. Career interruptions are more prevalent for female managers offering an explanation for a considerable part of gender pay gaps. Wage losses after career interruptions are more pronounced for male employees than they are for females, though.

Originality/value

This study extents the literature by disentangling the relation of career interruptions and different compensation components, bonus payments next to fixed salaries in particular. The role of interruption type and gender are also taken into account so that the paper deepens the understanding of the role of past career interruptions for employees’ remuneration.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 40 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2008

Christian Grund and Niels Westergaard‐Nielsen

Given the ongoing demographic change in European countries, this paper aims to explore empirically the link between age structures of employees in firms and firm performance.

Abstract

Purpose

Given the ongoing demographic change in European countries, this paper aims to explore empirically the link between age structures of employees in firms and firm performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on theoretical considerations, the paper examines the link between both the average age and the standard deviation of employees' age and firms' value added per employee. Linked employer employee data of all private‐sector firms in Denmark with at least 20 employees is used.

Findings

A pyramidal or inverse U‐shaped interrelation is found between mean age and standard deviation of age and value added per employee, respectively.

Research limitations/implications

It would be interesting to determine whether the results hold for different countries with other institutional environments.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to examine the link between corporate age structures and firm performance for a whole country. The paper gives insights for both academic scholars and practitioners, who may take the results into account in formulating an efficient personnel policy.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1985

Tomas Riha

Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and…

Abstract

Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and, conversely, innovative thought structures and attitudes have almost always forced economic institutions and modes of behaviour to adjust. We learn from the history of economic doctrines how a particular theory emerged and whether, and in which environment, it could take root. We can see how a school evolves out of a common methodological perception and similar techniques of analysis, and how it has to establish itself. The interaction between unresolved problems on the one hand, and the search for better solutions or explanations on the other, leads to a change in paradigma and to the formation of new lines of reasoning. As long as the real world is subject to progress and change scientific search for explanation must out of necessity continue.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 12 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 1 July 2014

Samantha A. Conroy, Nina Gupta, Jason D. Shaw and Tae-Youn Park

In this paper, we review the literature on pay variation (e.g., pay dispersion, pay compression, pay range) in organizations. Pay variation research has increased markedly…

Abstract

In this paper, we review the literature on pay variation (e.g., pay dispersion, pay compression, pay range) in organizations. Pay variation research has increased markedly in the past two decades and much progress has been made in terms of understanding its consequences for individual, team, and organizational outcomes. Our review of this research exposes several levels-related assumptions that have limited theoretical and empirical progress. We isolate the issues that deserve attention, develop an illustrative multilevel model, and offer a number of testable propositions to guide future research on pay structures.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-824-2

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Book part
Publication date: 19 August 2021

Kristin L. Cullen-Lester, Caitlin M. Porter, Hayley M. Trainer, Pol Solanelles and Dorothy R. Carter

The field of Human Resource Management (HRM) has long recognized the importance of interpersonal influence for employee and organizational effectiveness. HRM research and…

Abstract

The field of Human Resource Management (HRM) has long recognized the importance of interpersonal influence for employee and organizational effectiveness. HRM research and practice have focused primarily on individuals’ characteristics and behaviors as a means to understand “who” is influential in organizations, with substantially less attention paid to social networks. To reinvigorate a focus on network structures to explain interpersonal influence, the authors present a comprehensive account of how network structures enable and constrain influence within organizations. The authors begin by describing how power and status, two key determinants of individual influence in organizations, operate through different mechanisms, and delineate a range of network positions that yield power, reflect status, and/or capture realized influence. Then, the authors extend initial structural views of influence beyond the positions of individuals to consider how network structures within and between groups – capturing group social capital and/or shared leadership – enable and constrain groups’ ability to influence group members, other groups, and the broader organizational system. The authors also discuss how HRM may leverage these insights to facilitate interpersonal influence in ways that support individual, group, and organizational effectiveness.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-430-5

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 22 November 2016

John Levi Martin

To determine where, when, how, and wherefore European social theory hit upon the formula of “the True, the Good, and the Beautiful,” and how its structural position as a…

Abstract

Purpose

To determine where, when, how, and wherefore European social theory hit upon the formula of “the True, the Good, and the Beautiful,” and how its structural position as a skeleton for the theory of action has changed.

Methodology/approach

Genealogy, library research, and unusually good fortune were used to trace back the origin of what was to become a ubiquitous phrase, and to reconstruct the debates that made deploying the term seem important to writers.

Findings

The triad, although sometimes used accidentally in the renaissance, assumed a key structural place with a rise of Neo-Platonism in the eighteenth century associated with a new interest in providing a serious analysis of taste. It was a focus on taste that allowed the Beautiful to assume a position that was structurally homologous to those of the True and the Good, long understood as potential parallels. Although the first efforts were ones that attempted to emphasize the unification of the human spirit, the triad, once formulated, was attractive to faculties theorists more interested in decomposing the soul. They seized upon the triad as corresponding to an emerging sense of a tripartition of the soul. Finally, the members of the triad became re-understood as values, now as orthogonal dimensions.

Originality/value

This seems to be the first time the story of the development of the triad – one of the most ubiquitous architectonics in social thought – has been told.

Details

Reconstructing Social Theory, History and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-469-3

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Kristina Langnäse, Inga Asbeck, Mareike Mast and Manfred J. Müller

The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of the socio‐economic status (SES) on long‐term outcomes of a family‐based obesity treatment intervention in…

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of the socio‐economic status (SES) on long‐term outcomes of a family‐based obesity treatment intervention in prepubertal children. A total of 52 overweight and 26 normal weight children were investigated. Nutritional status, intake of fruit, vegetables and low fat foods, in‐between meals, sports club membership, frequency of exercise and daily television viewing were measured before intervention (t0 and after a mean period of 1.3 years (t1. The result obtained indicate that a low SES may serve as a barrier against family‐based intervention. The data provide evidence for the idea that there is need for social stratification of future measures of health promotion within families.

Details

Health Education, vol. 104 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2013

Christian Coenen, Doris Waldburger and Daniel von Felten

In the past, FM performance was mostly monitored by technical and cost‐related KPIs, whereas the measurement of perceived internal service quality was widely neglected…

Abstract

Purpose

In the past, FM performance was mostly monitored by technical and cost‐related KPIs, whereas the measurement of perceived internal service quality was widely neglected. Thus, the purpose of this paper is two‐fold: first, to develop an adequate model to capture the relationships between internal service quality, internal customer satisfaction and internal customer retention; and second, provide an instrument for the identification of areas of improvement for customer orientation in FM.

Design/methodology/approach

This research gives an insight into the relevance of customer orientation in FM. Following this, it introduces the concept of a FM Servicebarometer, highlighting an application of this model by presenting the results of an extensive quantitative survey that was conducted within a healthcare setting. Based on this model, various indices are calculated for the internal service quality, customer satisfaction and customer retention, resulting in the FM Quality Index.

Findings

Detailed analyses show insights into the interdependencies between various aspects of internal customer orientation in FM. In addition, driving forces of internal service quality, internal customer satisfaction and internal customer retention are presented.

Practical implications

The FM Quality Index (FMQI) allows both a longitudinal research and cross‐sectional comparison within FM. Thus, the FMQI may be applied as a tool for monitoring and managing internal customer orientation in FM.

Originality/value

FM Servicebarometer is a unique application of the service barometer approach within FM. Thus, it presents an innovative attempt to measure and control perceived service quality, customer satisfaction, and customer retention.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2000

Thomas Bieger, Christian Laesser, Eva Ludwig and Patrick Caspar

The article is a summarised version of a prospective study for the Swiss tourism region of Valais by the Institute for Public Management and Tourism (ITD) of the…

Abstract

The article is a summarised version of a prospective study for the Swiss tourism region of Valais by the Institute for Public Management and Tourism (ITD) of the University of St. Gallen which has been achieved in April 2000. The Transformation Model has served as theoretical background. The Swiss Ski area industry was for a long time a driver of the tourism development in the Alpine regions. The transformation of this sector has a direct impact on the transformation of destinations and other sectors. The necessary changes, the business models and the problems of financing investments explain the transformation process. The analysis is based on two major scenarios. If the status quo — scenario is followed, it would not be possible to change the structures. In this case, the public sector has to support the sector with payments of about 1,5 billions of sfr for the next decade. In the other case of a more managed development, the strategies and the structure of the sector's enterprises have to guarantee a sustainable development. The authors are in favour of a vertical integration of a destination which can create economies of scope rather than for a horizontal integration and economies of scale.

Details

The Tourist Review, vol. 55 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0251-3102

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