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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2008

Giacomo Morri and Christian Beretta

Unlike previous studies on capital structure decisions, the purpose of this paper is to focus on US real estate investment trusts (REITs) in order to find out the main…

2547

Abstract

Purpose

Unlike previous studies on capital structure decisions, the purpose of this paper is to focus on US real estate investment trusts (REITs) in order to find out the main determinants of capital structure choice for real estate companies and in order to verify if they are related to factors similar to those affecting the decisions of public firms in other sectors.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a methodology similar to Rajan and Zingales, a sample of 119 listed REITs with different investment strategies and in different property sectors was analyzed. The analysis is carried out in order to determine the basic factors underpinning the capital structures by selecting financial items and ratios related with leverage (such as asset size, profitability ratios, tangibility of assets, growth opportunities, operating risk and geographical diversification of investments).

Findings

Results show that REITs follow a pecking order theory of financing since more profitable firms are less levered and REITs with more growth opportunities have higher leverage ratios. The tangibility of assets turns out to be positively correlated with leverage, while REITs whose operating risk is high prefer a lower financial risk and consequently a lower gearing. Finally, it is not clear how size affects leverage decisions and more diversified REITs appear to be riskier.

Originality/value

The research also addresses the issue of asymmetric information and the debt‐equity choice for REITs sampled on the basis of their size, highlighting differences with other business sectors.

Details

Journal of European Real Estate Research, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-9269

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 18 July 2008

Nick French

299

Abstract

Details

Journal of European Real Estate Research, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-9269

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 3 November 2020

Vera Amicarelli and Christian Bux

Given the importance of food waste in the economic, social, health and environmental dimensions, the purpose of this work is to detect, through a systematic and…

3731

Abstract

Purpose

Given the importance of food waste in the economic, social, health and environmental dimensions, the purpose of this work is to detect, through a systematic and configurative literature review on food-waste-measurement methodologies, the global approaches, characteristics, limitations, opportunities and results applied within the literature. The analysis of these papers provides useful information about how far we are from international action plans and, therefore, how we need to direct programs and policies to measure and reduce food waste and ensure food security and food safety.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors have conducted a systematic, configurative literature review on food waste measurement methodologies applied only within empirical studies published in academic peer-reviewed scientific journals. Based on the Commission Delegated Decision (EU) 2019/1597 of May 3, 2019 (OJEU, 2019) regarding common methodologies and minimum quality requirements for the homogeneous assessment of food waste quantities and composition, the authors investigated the issue on Web of Science Core Collection (WoS) from June 2000 to June 2020. The authors researched keywords within article titles, abstracts and author keywords by utilizing 34 different research strings.

Findings

The proposed review particularly refers to following topics: measurement methodologies applied according to the Commission Delegated Decision (EU) 2019/1597; editorial placement and publication timeline; geographical area; food supply-chain stage and publication journals; and the main features, limitations, opportunities and results for each measurement methodology as presented by authors. Among the first 48,000 results, only 58 academic articles are perfectly in line with the aim of the review, highlighting the lack of standardized methodologies, the limits of those proposed and the deficiency of comparable results to achieve sustainable international goals.

Originality/value

The proposed review is one of the few concerning food waste measurement methodologies. Food waste measurement is essential to rebalance the actual inadequate food system and to switch it toward a fair, healthy and environmentally friendly one, thereby (1) managing the human nutrition system paradox of hungry, undernourished and over-weight people; (2) reducing food insecurity; (3) ensuring each living being's access to healthy, nutritious and sustainable food; and (4) reducing environmental impacts (neutral or positive impact) and the loss of biodiversity and mitigating climate change.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 20 July 2012

Daniela Parisi

Review essay on Finn, D. K. (Ed.). (2010). The true wealth of nations. Catholic social thought and economic life. Oxford/New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Abstract

Review essay on Finn, D. K. (Ed.). (2010). The true wealth of nations. Catholic social thought and economic life. Oxford/New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Details

Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology: A Research Annual
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-824-3

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 1 July 2020

Vera Amicarelli, Christian Bux and Giovanni Lagioia

The purpose of this paper is to measure food loss and waste by material flow analysis (MFA) tool. Applying this methodology, the authors estimate wastage-related losses…

2308

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to measure food loss and waste by material flow analysis (MFA) tool. Applying this methodology, the authors estimate wastage-related losses and discuss opportunities for more circular and sustainable practices in the Italian potato industry.

Design/methodology/approach

MFA is applied to two specific typologies as follows: ready-to-eat (chips) and dried potato products produced in Italy. The analysis refers to the year 2017 as the complete dataset useful for this study includes measurements until this year. A bottom-up and top-down mixed approach is applied, and functional unit refers to 1 t of potatoes consumed as final product.

Findings

MFA is applied to quantify and qualify material balance associated with 1 t of potatoes consumed as final product. In Italy, in 2017, more than 22,000 t of fresh tubers were lost, including 3,500–4,800 t of starch, equivalent to 52,800–72,600 GJs. Moreover, fewer than 23,000 t of skins and scraps were produced within industrial plants, not available for food but suitable for animal feed (dry skins are an excellent carbohydrates source in cattle and poultry feed), starch industry and bioenergy production (biogas and/or bioethanol).

Originality/value

This research is one of the few studies proposing MFA methodology as a tool to measure food waste. This analysis shows its utility in terms of food waste quality/quantity evaluation, supporting both company management and policymakers.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 20 August 2021

Vera Amicarelli, Alina-Cerasela Aluculesei, Giovanni Lagioia, Rodica Pamfilie and Christian Bux

The hospitality industry is responsible for significant amounts of waste, more than one-third of which is food waste. Through the comparison between an Italian and a…

6055

Abstract

Purpose

The hospitality industry is responsible for significant amounts of waste, more than one-third of which is food waste. Through the comparison between an Italian and a Romanian hotel, this paper aims to provide a better understanding of food waste management trends in the hotel industry as well as to highlight hotel kitchens and hotel food services weaknesses and opportunities to minimize food waste.

Design/methodology/approach

In-depth interviews, personal communication and observations were conducted to investigate food service planning, food procurement and food waste management, as well as to better comprehend current individuals’ understanding and attitudes, infrastructures, legislative culture and opportunities either from the managerial and the employees’ perspective. Data were analyzed according to a content analysis approach.

Findings

Three critical hot spots emerged from the analysis: prediction and check of guests’ attendance, communication and transparency with local suppliers and among departments within the unit and purchasing frequency and perishable food provisioning. The accurate forecasting of the number of guests and their nationality is fundamental in avoiding food waste at food service, as well as implementing transparency and communication with local suppliers.

Originality/value

Although academia and authorities have recognized the crucial importance of food waste management, food waste research in the hotel industry remains under-researched. The present exploratory research contributes to the scarce empirical studies about hotels’ food waste, giving theoretical and managerial recommendations for supporting further studies, highlighting the need for formal deals between hotels and local suppliers (food procurement), as well as the importance of food-networks that holds together companies, retailers and charities (food donation).

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 November 2020

Damiano Cortese, Christian Rainero and Valter Cantino

This paper aims at understanding whether firms conceive and use social media as disseminators, as well as amplifiers, of their results concerning sustainability and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims at understanding whether firms conceive and use social media as disseminators, as well as amplifiers, of their results concerning sustainability and responsibility and whether this practice stimulates stakeholder engagement and participation, laying the foundation for a dialogue on corporate social responsibility.

Design/methodology/approach

This research analyses the theoretical background of communication related to sustainability and responsibility and the company–stakeholder dialogue in the food sector. An inductive interpretive approach is provided by conducting a qualitative content analysis related to the communication practices of the food company Ferrero (Italy) from June 2015 to September 2019.

Findings

Companies can use social channels to present their vision, values, approaches and choices related to sustainability and responsibility. Social media can become useful networks to reach stakeholders requiring and claiming for transparency about more and more relevant topics – allowing, at the same time, a two-way relationship and dialogue.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation of the paper is that it presents the observation of a single firm.

Practical implications

The managerial implications relate to the value created by a dialogical communication: this is a strong foundation for enhancing relationships capable of maintaining and increasing the company's reputation. The establishment of an interchange about sustainability and responsibility represents a new way to direct the company and its stakeholders towards mutual support in creating value.

Originality/value

This article contributes to enriching the debate on the degree of knowledge, understanding, response and reaction to social media–based corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 24 September 2021

Vera Amicarelli, Mariantonietta Fiore and Christian Bux

The study proposes Material Flow Analysis (MFA) methodology as a tool to measure and qualify food waste in the Italian beef supply chain in each stage of the food supply…

Abstract

Purpose

The study proposes Material Flow Analysis (MFA) methodology as a tool to measure and qualify food waste in the Italian beef supply chain in each stage of the food supply chain, from farm to fork. In particular, the authors attempt to: (1) measure resources consumption and waste generation toward companies' and policymakers' sustainable evaluations; (2) enhance consumers' education in the field of agri-food resilience and sustainability.

Design/methodology/approach

MFA is applied to the entire Italian sector of beef consumed as packaged fresh product in 2020, during the Covid-19 pandemic. The analysis regards bovine, which represent roughly one-third of the national meat flow. To collect data, bottom-up and top-down mixed approach is applied. Subsequently, MFA results are used to calculate the wastage-related losses in terms of embedded natural resources (e.g. water, energy).

Findings

In 2020, it results that the Italian meat industry slaughtered more than 1.15 Mt of bovine to produce approximately 0.29 Mt of fresh meat, 0.69 Mt of by-products and over 0.015 Mt of food waste at households, while 0.15 Mt of beef meat is destined to catering services and food industry (out-of-boundaries). In terms of hidden natural resources, it emerged that, on average, more than 94bn m3 of water, approximately 101,000 TJ of energy and over 11,500 t of PET and PE trays are required to sustain the entire beef system.

Originality/value

This research is one of the few studies proposing MFA methodology as a tool to measure food waste and hidden associated flows in the agri-food sector. This analysis shows its utility in terms of natural resources (water, energy, materials) and waste quality/quantity evaluation, hidden flows accounting and development of new educational strategies toward food waste minimization and sustainability at household consumption.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 13
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 March 2021

Nadine Kafa and Anicia Jaegler

The purpose of this paper is to systematically review and critically examine food losses and waste quantification in supply chain, especially in studies that tackle all…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to systematically review and critically examine food losses and waste quantification in supply chain, especially in studies that tackle all the supply chain activities in a real context.

Design/methodology/approach

This work employed a systematic literature review methodology on the extant literature focusing on peer-reviewed journal articles published from 2000 to 2019.

Findings

A systematic analysis of 117 articles reveals that downstream supply chains are studied to a greater extent than upstream supply chains, with an emphasis on consumer waste. The findings also highlight more than half of the articles focus on only one supply chain activity. In terms of the methodologies, surveys and modelling methods are the most used to measure food losses and wastes, adopt monetary, carbon emission and calorific metrics. This study highlights that while food losses and waste research remains a relevant field of study, it has yet to been fully explored.

Research limitations/implications

The main limit is the adoption of a systematic review method for food losses and waste quantification in supply chain.

Practical implications

The results suggest that supply chain managers should invest in acquiring more knowledge about food losses in the global network. Upstream supply chains should be more studied and integrated with the downstream supply chains. Using combined direct and indirect methods has the potential to deal with the contradictions of quantification, the lack of data and reduce losses over time and space.

Originality/value

Based on this review as the first one focusing exclusively on quantification of food losses and waste in supply chain context, the authors develop an aspiring research agenda that proposes opportunities for future research.

Headings

  1. We analyse 117 studies addressing food losses and waste quantification.

  2. Downstream food supply chains are more studied than upstream food supply chains.

  3. Case studies of food supply chains in developed countries are more prolific.

  4. The main metric to quantify food losses and waste is weight.

We analyse 117 studies addressing food losses and waste quantification.

Downstream food supply chains are more studied than upstream food supply chains.

Case studies of food supply chains in developed countries are more prolific.

The main metric to quantify food losses and waste is weight.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1991

Allan Metz

This is a selective annotated bibliography of the literature on Christopher Columbus from 1970 to 1989. The subject is particularly relevant considering the approach of…

Abstract

This is a selective annotated bibliography of the literature on Christopher Columbus from 1970 to 1989. The subject is particularly relevant considering the approach of the Quincentenary of the “discovery” of America in 1992. For that same reason, there has been an outpouring of literature on the subject since 1990, a significant subset of which contributes to are interpretation of Columbus the man, his voyages, and their impact on the new world. It is hoped that this more recent literature will be part of a subsequent annotated bibliography.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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