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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2020

Zhiyong Li, Fangxuan (Sam) Li and Chris Ryan

This paper aims to present a case study investigating Chinese tourists’ perceptions of North Korea which is regarded one of the most unique tourism destinations in the world.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a case study investigating Chinese tourists’ perceptions of North Korea which is regarded one of the most unique tourism destinations in the world.

Design/methodology/approach

This exploratory study reports findings based on semi-structured interviews with 30 Chinese tourists. This study uses the cognitive-affective model to categorise destination image proposed by respondents. Data were analysed using content analysis.

Findings

The study found that the cognitive image focusses on attributes such as the country’s unique economic/political situation, unspoiled natural environment and poor infrastructure construction. Affective components centre on the friendly relationship between China and North Korea, and a comparison between North Korea’s current situation and that of China during the period of the cultural revolution.

Research limitations/implications

Given the qualitative approach and exploratory nature, the results may not be generalised to the wider literature of the Chinese outbound market. This article’s theoretical contribution to destination image may be limited to Chinese cultural contexts. This study provides practical implications for promoting North Korea’s images to attract more Chinese visitors.

Originality/value

Cognitive-affective model, as one of the most commonly used models, was used to explore North Korea’s destination image in Chinese tourists’ eyes. In addition, this study highlights the importance of politics in influencing a country’s destination image.

目的

这篇文章探究朝鲜作为世界上最神秘的旅游目的地之一在中国游客心目中的形象。

设计/方法

这个探索性研究报告的发现是基于和30位中国游客的半开放式访谈。认知情感模型被用来概括访谈对象提出的目的地形象。内容分析用来进行数据分析。

发现

这个研究发现认知影响主要关注于国家特殊的经济、政治情况, 未受污染的自然环境和落后的基础设施建设。情感印象主要关注于中朝鲜友谊和目前的朝鲜与文化大革命时期的中国相比较。

研究缺陷

作为探索性研究, 这篇文章的发现可能没法通用于中国出境游的市场。这篇文章的理论贡献可能局限于中国文化。这篇文章也为如何宣传朝鲜作为旅游旅游目的地来吸引中国游客提出了实际建议。

原创性

认知情感模型作为最常用的模型用来探索朝鲜在中国游客心里的目的地形象。除此之外, 这个研究强调了政治作为影响目的地形象的因素。

Propósito

este documento presenta un estudio de caso que investiga las percepciones de los turistas chinos sobre Corea del Norte, considerado uno de los destinos turísticos más singulares del mundo.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

este estudio exploratorio informa resultados basados en entrevistas semiestructuradas con 30 turistas chinos. Este estudio utiliza el modelo cognitivo-afectivo para clasificar la imagen de destino propuesta por los encuestados. Los datos se analizaron mediante análisis de contenido.

Hallazgos

el estudio encontró que la imagen cognitiva se enfoca en atributos tales como la situación económica/política única del país, el entorno natural virgen y la construcción de infraestructura deficiente. Los componentes afectivos se centran en la relación amistosa entre China y Corea del Norte, y una comparación entre la situación actual de Corea del Norte y la de China durante el período de la Revolución Cultural.

Limitaciones/implicaciones

de la investigación: dado el enfoque cualitativo y la naturaleza exploratoria, los resultados pueden no generalizarse a la literatura más amplia del mercado emisor chino. La contribución teórica de este artículo a la imagen de destino puede estar limitada a los contextos culturales chinos.Este estudio ofrece implicaciones prácticas para promover las imágenes de Corea del Norte para atraer a más visitantes chinos.

Originalidad/valor

el modelo cognitivo-afectivo como uno de los modelos más utilizados se utilizó para explorar la imagen de destino de Corea del Norte a los ojos de los turistas chinos. Además, este estudio destaca la importancia de la política para influir en la imagen de destino de un país.

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 20 May 2020

Iok Keng Veronica Lam and Chris Ryan

The paper aims to study Macau’s brand and destination personality. The data are derived from 91 semi-structured interviews with visitors to Macau at points of departure…

1806

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to study Macau’s brand and destination personality. The data are derived from 91 semi-structured interviews with visitors to Macau at points of departure such as the airport and ferry terminals. Macau is perceived as hospitable and friendly, but complexities and ambiguities exist as the city is a fusion of Western and Asian cultures and locates gaming with a Portuguese heritage. Indeed one informant described the city as an “old person with a young spirit”. Given this, the final discussion is concerned with the concepts of anthropomorphic attributes associated with destination personality when applied to a destination, whereas managerial implications are identified with reference to a need to overcome some deficiencies in a perceived coldness in interactions with industry personnel.

Details

Tourism Critiques: Practice and Theory, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2633-1225

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 10 September 2020

Chris Ryan

164

Abstract

Details

Tourism Critiques: Practice and Theory, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2633-1225

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 28 May 2020

Chris Ryan

After expressing an initial disquiet about the nature of many studies that are published using structural equation modelling (SEM), a rationale for using the technique is…

2574

Abstract

Purpose

After expressing an initial disquiet about the nature of many studies that are published using structural equation modelling (SEM), a rationale for using the technique is provided. Given the advantages provided by the technique, the differences between covariance-based and partial least squares techniques are briefly described. The argument progresses by indicating assumptions behind the techniques and what it is that referees require before being able to properly referee the paper. Some issues are fundamental to survey-based materials and include the requirement to distinguish between importance and discriminatory power, and the over-dependency on cross-sectional analysis when making claims of generalisation. Other issues of scale creation and sample size are touched upon. This paper finishes by suggesting a checklist for referees who are asked to review papers using SEM.

Details

Tourism Critiques: Practice and Theory, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2633-1225

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Chris Ryan

This section of the book comprises three chapters written by Oksana Grybovych, Susan Slocum, Ken Backman, Elisabeth Baldwin and Chris Ryan. The first two by Grybovych…

Abstract

This section of the book comprises three chapters written by Oksana Grybovych, Susan Slocum, Ken Backman, Elisabeth Baldwin and Chris Ryan. The first two by Grybovych (2012) and Slocum, Backman, and Baldwin (2012) respectively report research processes related to specific projects, while the last seeks to provide an analysis associated with cross-case study research. By definition cross-case analysis relates to comparisons being made across different places, or of the same place across different times (a longitudinal analysis such as that by Gu & Ryan, 2008, 2011, in their studies of Shi Chi Hai Hutong in Beijing) or indeed of different places at different times, but related to each other by the commonality of a theme identified by the researcher.

Details

Field Guide to Case Study Research in Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-742-0

Book part
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Chris Ryan

Prior to the development of low-cost computing and the ease of completing statistical analysis, case studies played a significant role in the development of the social…

Abstract

Prior to the development of low-cost computing and the ease of completing statistical analysis, case studies played a significant role in the development of the social sciences. However, since the mid-1990s statistical modelling and empirically driven work has come to dominate academic literature; yet there remain epistemological similarities between some forms of case study work and statistical modelling. Nonetheless, issues of the qualitative versus quantitative divide and the purported role of value judgments made by the researchers have in part muddied the waters until quite recently, when the researchers using statistical methods started to adopt the use of the first person in their writing and began to recognise that the choice of a given statistical technique is just as surely a value judgment or exercise of experience and expertise as is any interpretation of text by a qualitative researcher. Similarly, qualitative researchers have become increasingly familiar with textual analysis using software programmes based on neural network theory, and a new generation of researchers have become comfortable with a mixed method mode of analysis.

Details

Field Guide to Case Study Research in Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-742-0

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Chris Ryan

Those promoting tourism often seek to highlight that which is unique about their destinations in order to attract tourists. Many countries have beautiful landscapes, rich…

Abstract

Those promoting tourism often seek to highlight that which is unique about their destinations in order to attract tourists. Many countries have beautiful landscapes, rich histories and heritage, and the tourist may come to see linkages of landscape and history across different countries and indeed possibly across continents. However, in the search for the unique, those countries with ethnic minority or other minority groups demarcated by factors other than ethnicity but characterised by special belief systems or ways of life living within their borders (e.g. the Amish) are truly able to offer the tourist a glimpse of something that will not be found in other parts of the world. Accordingly, and being aware that holiday makers are not lay anthropologists and may be seeking little more than an entertainment, minorities and their culture have become in many places a staged show based primarily on song and dance. Indeed, such has been the process that Xie (2011, p. 196) provides an example from the island of Hainan, China, where tourism promoters have created ‘the authentic Chiyou tribe’ to entertain tourists – a tribe developed purely for entertainment based on concepts of the exotic and primitive and only loosely based on the culture of the native Li people. One partial result described by Xie (2011) has been that the Li themselves have become confused as to their own culture.

Details

Field Guide to Case Study Research in Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-742-0

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Abstract

Details

Field Guide to Case Study Research in Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-742-0

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2012

Girish Prayag and Chris Ryan

This paper aims to report the results of a study into visitor evaluations of interactions with hotel employees in Mauritius. Given that the island's core tourism product…

2491

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to report the results of a study into visitor evaluations of interactions with hotel employees in Mauritius. Given that the island's core tourism product is based on luxury resorts, tourist‐hotel employee interactions possess a potential for determining satisfactory or unsatisfactory holiday evaluations on the part of visitors.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 103 visitors is interviewed using a semi‐structured guide comprising open‐ended questions. This approach reflects the lived experiences of guests and helps to better assess the role played by nationality when reporting visitor‐staff interactions. Data are analyzed using both thematic analysis and textual analysis software.

Findings

Nationality, ethnicity and languages spoken are found to be factors that determine differences in requirements from hotel staff on the part of tourists. Nationality is the strongest discriminator of these requirements.

Research limitations/implications

As with many examples of qualitative research, the findings are time and place specific. Yet nonetheless, the concepts of personal construct theory permit some generalization.

Practical implications

Resort complex staff and management need to note the differences required by guests of different national groupings, and to appreciate that less than warm responses by some clients are not indicative of dissatisfaction.

Originality/value

The paper distinguishes between guests not only on the basis of nationality and ethnicity, but also languages spoken. No similar study relating to resort complexes in Mauritius has been identified. The study also uses two modes of textual data analysis to support the interpretation offered.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Kenneth F. Hyde, Chris Ryan and Arch G. Woodside

This chapter is a general introduction to the field of case study research in tourism, hospitality, and leisure. The chapter presents a brief review of the literature on…

Abstract

This chapter is a general introduction to the field of case study research in tourism, hospitality, and leisure. The chapter presents a brief review of the literature on the intra-individual logic of case study research. The chapter describes the “four horsemen” for doing case study research: accuracy, generality, complexity/coverage, and value/impact. Examples in the chapter that illustrate this perspective for undertaking case study research may impassion the reader to read through the field guide and personally engage in case study research – at least that is the hope of the editors of this field guide.

Details

Field Guide to Case Study Research in Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-742-0

Keywords

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