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Article
Publication date: 24 April 2020

Victoria L. Lemieux, Chris Rowell, Marc-David L. Seidel and Carson C. Woo

Distributed trust technologies, such as blockchain, propose to permit peer-to-peer transactions without trusted third parties. Yet not all implementations of such…

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Abstract

Purpose

Distributed trust technologies, such as blockchain, propose to permit peer-to-peer transactions without trusted third parties. Yet not all implementations of such technologies fully decentralize. Information professionals make strategic choices about the level of decentralization when implementing such solutions, and many organizations are taking a hybrid (i.e. partially decentralized) approach to the implementation of distributed trust technologies. This paper conjectures that while hybrid approaches may resolve some challenges of decentralizing information governance, they also introduce others. To better understand these challenges, this paper aims first to elaborate a framework that conceptualizes a centralized–decentralized information governance continuum along three distinct dimensions: custody, ownership and right to access data. This paper then applies this framework to two illustrative blockchain case studies – a pilot Brazilian land transfer recording solution and a Canadian health data consent sharing project – to exemplify how the current transition state of blockchain pilots straddles both the old (centralized) and new (decentralized) worlds. Finally, this paper outlines the novel challenges that hybrid approaches introduce for information governance and what information professionals should do to navigate this thorny transition period. Counterintuitively, it may be much better for information professionals to embrace decentralization when implementing distributed trust technologies, as hybrid models could offer the worst of both the centralized and future decentralized worlds when consideration is given to the balance between information governance risks and new strategic business opportunities.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper illustrates how blockchain is transforming organizations and societies by highlighting new strategic information governance challenges using our original analytic framework in two detailed blockchain case studies – a pilot solution in Brazil to record land transfers (Flores et al., 2018) and another in Canada to handle health data sharing consent (Hofman et al., 2018). The two case studies represent research output of the first phase of an ongoing multidisciplinary research project focused on gaining an understanding of how blockchain technology generates organizational, societal and data transformations and challenges. The analytic framework was developed inductively from a thematic synthesis of the findings of the case studies conducted under the auspices of this research project. Each case discussed in detail in this paper was chosen from among the project's case studies, as it represents a desire to move away from the old centralized world of information governance to a new decentralized one. However, each case study also represents and embodies a transition state between the old and new worlds and highlights many of the associated strategic information governance challenges.

Findings

Decentralization continues to disrupt organizations and societies. New emerging distributed trust technologies such as blockchain break the old rules with respect to the trust and authority structures of organizations and how records and data are created, managed and used. While governments and businesses around the world clearly see value in this technology to drive business efficiency, open up new market opportunities and create new forms of value, these advantages will not come without challenges. For information executives then, the question is not if they will be disrupted, but how. Understanding the how as will be discussed in this paper provides the business know how to leverage the incredible innovation and transformation that decentralized trust technology enables before being leapfrogged by another organization. It requires a change of mindset to consider an organization as one part of a broader ecosystem, and for those who successfully do so, this paper views this as a strategic opportunity for those responsible for strategic information governance to design the future instead of being disrupted by it.

Research limitations/implications

This paper presents a novel analytic framework for strategic information governance challenges as we transition from a traditional world of centralized records and information management to a new decentralized world. This paper analyzes these transitions and their implications for strategic information governance along three trajectories: custody, ownership and right to access records and data, illustrating with reference to our case studies.

Practical implications

This paper predicts a large number of organizations will miss the opportunities of the new decentralized trust world, resulting in a rather major churning of organizations, as those who successfully participate in building the new model will outcompete those stuck in the old world or the extremely problematic hybrid transition state. Counterintuitively, this paper argues that it may be much less complex for information executives to embrace decentralization as fast as they can, as in some ways the hybrid model seems to offer the worst of both the centralized and future decentralized worlds with respect to information governance risks.

Social implications

This paper anticipates broader societal consequences of the predicted organization churn, in particular with respect to uncertainty about the evidence that records provide for public accountability and contractual rights and entitlements.

Originality/value

Decentralized trust technologies, such as blockchain, permit peer-to-peer transactions without trusted third parties. Of course, such radical shifts do not happen overnight. The current transition state of blockchain pilots straddles both the old and new worlds. This paper presents a theoretical framework categorizing strategic information governance challenges on a spectrum of centralized to decentralized in three primary areas: custody, ownership and right to access records and data. To illustrate how decentralized trust is transforming organizations and societies, this paper presents these strategic information governance challenges in two blockchain case studies – a pilot Brazilian land transfer recording solution and a Canadian health data consent sharing project. Drawing on the theoretical framework and case studies, this paper outlines what information executives should do to navigate this thorny transition period.

Details

Records Management Journal, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-5698

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 15 December 2016

Chris Rowell, Robin Gustafsson and Marco Clemente

We argue that our understanding of how institutions matter has been undermined by a piecemeal approach to temporality in institutional analyses. This paper addresses this…

Abstract

We argue that our understanding of how institutions matter has been undermined by a piecemeal approach to temporality in institutional analyses. This paper addresses this shortcoming in the literature. We bring temporality to the fore by conceptualizing practices, which constitute institutions, as understood, situated, and coordinated in time by temporal structures. We elaborate an integrated framework of temporal structures that consist of three types: temporal patterns, temporal conceptions, and temporal orientations – and outline how each type contributes to the reproduction of practices. We discuss the implications of this framework for sustainability initiatives and conclude by suggesting future avenues of research on the temporal foundations of institutions.

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 15 December 2016

Abstract

Details

How Institutions Matter!
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-429-7

Book part
Publication date: 15 December 2016

Abstract

Details

How Institutions Matter!
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-429-7

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1991

Walt Crawford

How can you call yourself a serious computer user if you don't have a 33MHz 486 system with a 16″ 1024×768 Super VGA screen and 300MB disk drive? Run right out and get the…

Abstract

How can you call yourself a serious computer user if you don't have a 33MHz 486 system with a 16″ 1024×768 Super VGA screen and 300MB disk drive? Run right out and get the new goodies—otherwise, you're wasting your precious time. The above is an extreme position. On the other hand, if you're still using the equivalent of an IBM PC/XT (or, worse yet, an original PC), you're at the other extreme. Quite apart from the hype, you would almost certainly benefit from a more powerful PC. For most of us in the real world who are spending real dollars for equipment to serve real needs, the decisions can be tough: upgrade, replace, or let it be? And, if upgrading is the answer, what should you upgrade? This column deals with hardware questions. While there are few firm rules, there are some reasonable guidelines to consider. The author also provides notes from January‐June 1991 PC literature; it's been a great period for powermongers!

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Book part
Publication date: 13 July 2016

Catherine J. Taylor, Laura Freeman, Daniel Olguin Olguin and Taemie Kim

In this project, we propose and test a new device – wearable sociometric badges containing small microphones – as a low-cost and relatively unobtrusive tool for measuring…

Abstract

Purpose

In this project, we propose and test a new device – wearable sociometric badges containing small microphones – as a low-cost and relatively unobtrusive tool for measuring stress response to group processes. Specifically, we investigate whether voice pitch, measured using the microphone of the sociometric badge, is associated with physiological stress response to group processes.

Methodology

We collect data in a laboratory setting using participants engaged in two types of small-group interactions: a social interaction and a problem-solving task. We examine the association between voice pitch (measured by fundamental frequency of the participant’s speech) and physiological stress response (measured using salivary cortisol) in these two types of small-group interactions.

Findings

We find that in the social task, participants who exhibit a stress response have a statistically significant greater deviation in voice pitch (from their overall average voice pitch) than those who do not exhibit a stress response. In the problem-solving task, participants who exhibit a stress response also have a greater deviation in voice pitch than those who do not exhibit a stress response, however, in this case, the results are only marginally significant. In both tasks, among participants who exhibited a stress response, we find a statistically significant correlation between physiological stress response and deviation in voice pitch.

Practical and research implications

We conclude that wearable microphones have the potential to serve as cheap and unobtrusive tools for measuring stress response to group processes.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-041-1

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 August 2020

Rommel O. Salvador, Adelina Gnanlet and Chris McDermott

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of the use of unit-level functional flexibility on one particular patient outcome, unit-acquired pressure ulcers, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of the use of unit-level functional flexibility on one particular patient outcome, unit-acquired pressure ulcers, and the potential moderating influences of coworker support and workload.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses an archival approach, examining data from 68 hospital units.

Findings

The results indicate that a unit's higher use of functionally flexible nurses in one-quarter was associated with a higher number of pressure ulcers among the unit's patients the following quarter. This detrimental effect was significantly diminished when coworker support within the unit was high. Unit-level nurse workload did not have any moderating influence.

Research limitations/implications

One of the scholarly contributions of this study is that it links greater use of functionally flexible employees to a negative patient safety outcome at the unit level. As most of the variables used in the study were archival measures, future research could examine the replicability of these findings using other indicators and measures.

Practical implications

Beyond healthcare settings, the results prompt managers in industries where there has been growing use of functional flexibility (e.g., banking) to think about the associated unintended negative consequences. That said, the results also point to coworker instrumental support as a means by which to mitigate negative outcomes.

Originality/value

Although functional flexibility has been shown to positively correlate with a number of organizational performance indicators, this is one of the very few studies that has examined its negative consequences, particularly on patient safety.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 50 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

Walt Crawford

It takes more than a computer, hard disk, diskettes, display, keyboard, and software to make a fully productive computer system. In this article, the author discusses the…

Abstract

It takes more than a computer, hard disk, diskettes, display, keyboard, and software to make a fully productive computer system. In this article, the author discusses the finishing touches: some of the peripherals (excluding printers) that you will want to consider for your new or existing personal computer. You might even consider the “ultimate peripheral,” a portable computer. The second section of this article divides portable computers into their basic categories, discusses the premium you pay for portability, and notes the greater importance of vendor survival for portable computers. The first quarter of 1993 seemed unusually rich in noteworthy articles in PC magazines. That may be at least partially because PC Sources has increased its editorial scope and partially because the author is now including several Windows‐specific magazines (one new) in the mix.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1989

MacDermid Europe announces the appointment of Terence Copeland as new group managing diretor in charge of European operations. Mr Copeland, formerly manager of MacDermid…

Abstract

MacDermid Europe announces the appointment of Terence Copeland as new group managing diretor in charge of European operations. Mr Copeland, formerly manager of MacDermid Singapore and marketing director of MacDermid Asia, took up the post from the 1st of June.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 18 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1991

Walt Crawford

IBM owners who upgraded to PC‐DOS 4.0 may rightly whimper when confronted with software upgrades—and this time, thanks to System 7, Macintosh owners don't get to nod…

Abstract

IBM owners who upgraded to PC‐DOS 4.0 may rightly whimper when confronted with software upgrades—and this time, thanks to System 7, Macintosh owners don't get to nod smugly either. Whether at the system level or in applications, software upgrades can reduce the most expert techie to tears of frustration. At least with hardware, the manufacturers don't send you notices that it's time to change to a new version for a modest additional fee. Software involves more frequent upgrades than hardware, but the choices are no less difficult. The author recounts some personal experiences and offers some guidelines that may or may not do you any good. The author also provides notes from July‐September 1991 PC literature. Other than the drum‐beating for DOS 5.0 (not cited here), it's been a mixed period: some interesting material with few breakthroughs.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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