Examines research activity in executive competencies, and the ManagementCharter Initiative M3 framework. Briefly outlines executive competencyframe‐works currently being…
Examines research activity in executive competencies, and the Management Charter Initiative M3 framework. Briefly outlines executive competency frame‐works currently being developed and indicates future directions.
Describes the national trialling of the Management Charter Initiative Senior Management Standards which involved hundreds of senior managers in 1994‐5. Outlines the results of the field tests and concludes that the senior management standards have a high level of acceptance among senior managers across a wide variety of organizations.
The governance structure of Islamic financial institutions (IFIs) implements Islamic canon law (Shari'a) into business transactions through Shari'a supervision processes…
The governance structure of Islamic financial institutions (IFIs) implements Islamic canon law (Shari'a) into business transactions through Shari'a supervision processes. This paper aims to define Shari'a supervision and examine Shari'a supervisory councils (both within and outside the Central Bank), Shari'a consulting firms, Shari'a advisors, and Shari'a Supervisory Boards (SSB). It also discusses the importance of the hierarchical position of SSBs and evaluates their objectives and functions.
The paper reviews a wide range of theoretical literatures especially recent proceedings of relevant conferences in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries along with the standards of the Accounting and Auditing Organization of Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI). A framework for understanding the role of the SSB is developed suggesting a set of objectives and functions for the SSB.
The paper finds a lack of standardization among the IFIs concerning the position of the SSB within the corporate hierarchy. Moreover, the SSB is found to control the IFIs activities more than the other types of Shari'a supervision such as Shari'a consulting firms and Shari'a advisors.
The research focuses exclusively on the GCC countries and excludes the other Middle East and Far East countries where Shari'a supervision might have different forms.
The research provides guidelines for IFIs in defining the SSB role in their governance structure and recommends the SSB among the other forms of Shari'a supervision (Shari'a consulting firms and Shari'a advisors) in controlling the IFIs activities.
This study contributes to the literature gap about the governance of IFIs. It is one of the first studies that provide a conceptual foundation for the SSB role in the governance structure of IFIs.
US demographers predict that women, people of color and ethnic minorities will represent over 50 percent of all new entrants to the US workforce by 2008. This shift in…
US demographers predict that women, people of color and ethnic minorities will represent over 50 percent of all new entrants to the US workforce by 2008. This shift in demographics plus the pressure from a growing competitive global marketplace are forcing organizations to rethink models of business success. The authors describe how organizations can ensure their readiness to effectively align business strategies with today's demographic and market realities to achieve growth, profitability, and sustainability. This study updates the literature by connecting the leadership literature with diversity research. The theory development of this study reviewed the progress made and the future prospects and potential profits for US businesses in leading today's diverse workforce. Findings from interviews and focus groups with senior executives, representing a cross section of American industries, led to best practices recommendations for capitalizing on the strategic benefits of diversity.
The Islamic financial institutions (IFIs) maintain better control over their transactions than conventional financial institutions (CFIs) through the existence of Shari'a…
The Islamic financial institutions (IFIs) maintain better control over their transactions than conventional financial institutions (CFIs) through the existence of Shari'a Supervisory Board (SSB) and Shari'a Control Department (SCD). The purpose of this paper is to highlight the superiority of Shari'a supervision over external audit and Shari'a audit over internal audit. The study identifies five independent variables that affect the SSB control: ex‐ante Shari'a audit; ex‐post Shari'a audit; SCD reporting to the SSB; corrective actions of SSB towards the management violations; and the number of SSB members.
The variables are articulated in five hypotheses, which are tested by ordinary least square regression. The data are collected via a questionnaire which was sent to the SSB members of 219 IFIs in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries.
The results indicate that ex‐ante Shari'a audit, ex‐post Shari'a audit, and reporting of SCD are significantly related to the SSB control, whereas corrective actions and the number of SSB members have insignificant relation.
The research is focused on internal factors only, without considering other external factors such as stakeholders and regulators. Also, the research covered the GCC region alone.
The research recommends testing the hypotheses in other geographies to generalize the results, and including external factors as well as shareholders and board of directors.
The research provides practical implications for the SCD role and calls for merging the SCD with the traditional internal audit department to reduce the excessive work of controlling.
The paper contributes to the literature gap about the SSB. It is believed to be one of few studies that provide empirical evidence about the SSB control in the IFIs of the GCC region.
This study examines the influence of firm management’s ethical “tone at the top” (tone) and the working relationship of an auditor with his/her supervisor (senior) on the…
This study examines the influence of firm management’s ethical “tone at the top” (tone) and the working relationship of an auditor with his/her supervisor (senior) on the auditor’s propensity to engage in an unethical, dysfunctional auditor behavior (DAB). Findings indicate that environmental factors influence the staff auditor’s decision of whether or not to follow a course of action suggested by the supervisor that is contrary to both the audit program and generally accepted auditing standards (GAAS). Specifically, auditors are influenced by the tone that the partner sets for the firm and by the working relationship that the staff auditor has with the supervising senior auditor. The results of this research have ramifications for the auditing profession, as they identify specific factors outside of auditing standards and beyond an auditor’s moral reasoning capabilities that can influence the acceptance of unethical, dysfunctional behavior.
Looks at the various applications of the CO2 gas laser in industrial material processing. Describes how the CO2 laser beam interacts with particular materials and highlights the laser system configuration, system characteristics and attributes. Details CO2 laser cutting, welding and surface modification and briefly touches on some emerging aerospace application areas.