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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

David M. Boje, Heather Baca-Greif, Melissa Intindola and Steven Elias

The purpose of this paper is to develop a new model for depicting organizational processes: the episodic spiral model (ESM).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a new model for depicting organizational processes: the episodic spiral model (ESM).

Design/methodology/approach

On the basis of a strong process view as the orienting paradigm, the authors demonstrate the need for the ESM by discussing the shortcomings of two specific spiral types in the organizational literature – the knowledge creation spiral and the efficacy spiral.

Findings

A review of each spiral type through the lens of nonlinear assumptions reveals the treatment to date of organizational spirals as uni-directional and insufficient for understanding organizations. The authors propose that managers must undertake a paradigm shift in order to gain a greater awareness of both the environment in which they operate, as well as their process actions. To facilitate this shift, the ESM depicts choice points, chosen and rejected trajectories, and upward and downward environmental drafts, as well as a multi-dimensional environment, as a way of re-conceptualizing approaches to space, time, and change in organization studies.

Originality/value

The authors propose that the model provides a way for scholars to enhance the study of organizations by understanding that organizations exist in a more dynamic environment than previously studied; recognizing that the organization has a wider range of choices available, and acknowledging the long-lasting ramifications of both choices made and choices discarded; and obtaining a more comprehensive look at the way the organization moves through space and time at any given moment. Taken together, the authors hope that these contributions allow organizational scholars a new approach to theorizing, exploring, and writing about the organizations they study.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Book part
Publication date: 27 June 2015

W. Warner Burke

Early in one’s career in psychology, certainly starting in graduate school, if not sooner as a psych major in college, a choice point gradually emerges between seeking a…

Abstract

Early in one’s career in psychology, certainly starting in graduate school, if not sooner as a psych major in college, a choice point gradually emerges between seeking a career as a scholar, a scientist, and perhaps as an academic versus pursuing the life of a practitioner, one who applies the work of the former, the scholar. We faculty will often cast this choice in the form of a “tension” between science and practice. Ironically, I have never felt such tension. The purpose of this chapter is to explore choices we make in life and career, the consequences of these choices, and what we can learn in the process, that is, along the way and the implications for organization change and development.

Details

Research in Organizational Change and Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-018-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1994

George Válas

Until recently there were very few publications dealing with comparison of different CDROM information retrieval software packages (Richards & Robinson 1993). The few…

Abstract

Until recently there were very few publications dealing with comparison of different CDROM information retrieval software packages (Richards & Robinson 1993). The few exceptions (e.g. Harry & Oppenheim 1993; Jacsó 1991; McFaul 1992; Tian‐Zhu 1991; Zink 1991) mostly deal only with the principles of such comparisons, not with actual comparisons, and mostly only with user interfaces, not with the software as a whole. They usually give collections of rules — how to rank the CDROM publications, how to give ‘award marks’ to them — but this usually characterises CDROM publications and databases, not the software itself. Moreover, the performance factors, the properties most important for professional searchers, are usually completely missing from these collections of rules.

Details

Online and CD-Rom Review, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1353-2642

Content available
Article
Publication date: 27 August 2020

Dieter Koemle and Xiaohua Yu

This paper reviews the current literature on theoretical and methodological issues in discrete choice experiments, which have been widely used in non-market value…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper reviews the current literature on theoretical and methodological issues in discrete choice experiments, which have been widely used in non-market value analysis, such as elicitation of residents' attitudes toward recreation or biodiversity conservation of forests.

Design/methodology/approach

We review the literature, and attribute the possible biases in choice experiments to theoretical and empirical aspects. Particularly, we introduce regret minimization as an alternative to random utility theory and sheds light on incentive compatibility, status quo, attributes non-attendance, cognitive load, experimental design, survey methods, estimation strategies and other issues.

Findings

The practitioners should pay attention to many issues when carrying out choice experiments in order to avoid possible biases. Many alternatives in theoretical foundations, experimental designs, estimation strategies and even explanations should be taken into account in practice in order to obtain robust results.

Originality/value

The paper summarizes the recent developments in methodological and empirical issues of choice experiments and points out the pitfalls and future directions both theoretically and empirically.

Details

Forestry Economics Review, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-3030

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Book part
Publication date: 25 August 2006

Stephen Gibbons and Olmo Silva

Advocates of market-based reforms in the public sector argue that competition between providers drives up performance. But in the context of schooling, the concern is that…

Abstract

Advocates of market-based reforms in the public sector argue that competition between providers drives up performance. But in the context of schooling, the concern is that any improvements in efficiency may come at the cost of increased stratification of schools along lines of pupil ability and attainments. In this chapter, we discuss our empirical work on competition and parental choice in English primary schools and present a methodology for identifying competition effects that exploits discontinuities in market access close to education district boundaries.

Details

Improving School Accountability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-446-1

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Article
Publication date: 27 December 2018

Mian Ilyas Ahmad, Peter Benner and Lihong Feng

The purpose of this paper is to propose an interpolation-based projection framework for model reduction of quadratic-bilinear systems. The approach constructs projection…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose an interpolation-based projection framework for model reduction of quadratic-bilinear systems. The approach constructs projection matrices from the bilinear part of the original quadratic-bilinear descriptor system and uses these matrices to project the original system.

Design/methodology/approach

The projection matrices are constructed by viewing the bilinear system as a linear parametric system, where the input associated with the bilinear part is treated as a parameter. The advantage of this approach is that the projection matrices can be constructed reliably by using an a posteriori error bound for linear parametric systems. The use of the error bound allows us to select a good choice of interpolation points and parameter samples for the construction of the projection matrices by using a greedy-type framework.

Findings

The results are compared with the standard quadratic-bilinear projection methods and it is observed that the approximations through the proposed method are comparable to the standard method but at a lower computational cost (offline time).

Originality/value

In addition to the proposed model order reduction framework, the authors extend the one-sided moment matching parametric model order reduction (PMOR) method to a two-sided method that doubles the number of moments matched in the PMOR method.

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Article
Publication date: 13 January 2020

Shan-Huei Wang, Chung-Jen Chen, Andy Ruey-Shan Guo and Ya-Hui Lin

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships among choice of industry diversification, capabilities and business group performance, as well as to point out…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships among choice of industry diversification, capabilities and business group performance, as well as to point out the potential concern about endogenous role of industry diversification.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data from the top 100 business groups in Taiwan from TEJ database. This study uses Heckman’s two-step estimation procedure and contingency model to achieve unbiased results and examine our hypotheses.

Findings

The results of this study find that if business groups’ marketing or operational capabilities are strong they should adopt a high level of diversification strategy and if business groups’ R&D capability is strong they should adopt a low level one. The results of this study also show that the endogenous problem of industry diversification exists, and needs to be considered. Moreover, our finding confirms the importance of capability–strategy fit, which, in turn, can achieve better performance.

Practical implications

On average, high industry diversification groups perform better than low industry diversification groups after controlling for endogeneity issues. Business groups can achieve better performance if their strategy choices match the capabilities they encounter. Managers should pay attention to strategy-capability fit issues. Specifically, they should review their organizational capabilities as well as check their strategies within firms.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first that attempts to explore the endogenous role of diversification strategy choices, and empirical examine strategy-capability fit on business group performance.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 58 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2012

Pia Hurmelinna‐Laukkanen and Bruce Heiman

The current innovation environment is characterized by complexity, networking and internationalization and calls for managerial approaches that not only foster…

Abstract

Purpose

The current innovation environment is characterized by complexity, networking and internationalization and calls for managerial approaches that not only foster value‐capture activities, but acknowledge value creation as equally important. The purpose of this study is to clarify and define in more useful conceptual detail the nature of value creation, an area within the Knowledge Management field that has not received as much research scrutiny as it warrants. The authors' main contribution in unpacking a logic of problem finding is to expand understanding of how organizations choose valuable problems on which to work.

Design/methodology/approach

The research findings are based on a literature review. In particular, the paper aims to increase understanding of value creation in innovation by critically examining and augmenting the problem‐finding/problem‐solving (PF/PS) perspective.

Findings

Based on the PF/PS approach, the paper proposes a managerial cognitive frame that shows the challenges faced by managers in the value creation process and also the associated decision points. The paper argues that three distinct discriminating alignment choices – process selection, problem‐selection, and governance choice – are essential parts of value creation, and can in time lead to efficient value‐capture and improved innovation outcomes. Also, concentrating on the early stages of innovation, the paper identifies relevant processes and the various management biases that impede successful problem‐finding.

Research limitations/implications

As the paper is conceptual, the findings await empirical confirmation. However, the paper presents a framework that will provide a useful basis for further work.

Practical implications

The discussion of problem‐finding and the different processes that can be used to overcome various biases can be utilized by managers to improve processes within their organizations. Using the proposed framework as a tool, organizations can reduce resources wasted trying to solve inappropriately defined problems.

Originality/value

The contribution of the paper lies in presenting a new approach to value creation and capture, with a focus on the neglected area of problem‐finding. A new legalistic bias is specified in some detail, and the importance of awareness of bias by teams to diminish its impact on problem‐finding efficiency is discussed. Closer examination of value creation increases the potential for improved competitive advantage and value‐capture. Limitations of this and prior work are also discussed and directions for future work suggested.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Book part
Publication date: 21 September 2017

Irina Gewinner

There exist a number of approaches that attempt to explain the occupational choices of youth from different perspectives. The social cognitive theory and the self-efficacy…

Abstract

Purpose

There exist a number of approaches that attempt to explain the occupational choices of youth from different perspectives. The social cognitive theory and the self-efficacy approach, to name the most influential, emphasize the centrality of cognitive abilities of individuals in making a career choice, and look at professional orientation primarily through the lenses of micro factors. This chapter extends existing approaches by accentuating the importance of cultural traditions and stereotypes for occupational choices.

Methodology/approach

This chapter uses official statistical data ranging from the rise of the USSR to the present day. These have been collected by the Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat) and were partly retrieved from archives.

Findings

After a review of extant theoretical frames pertinent to career choices, this chapter suggests a theory of occupational choices through the lenses of gender, thus deploying Sandra L. Bem’s (1973, 1981) framework on gender schema. Proposing a theoretical model that links micro and macro factors, the chapter then demonstrates how the approach functions in the Russian post-socialist context.

Originality/value

The novelty consists of incorporation of sociocultural aspects of occupational choices, thus allowing a scope for comparative research. Additionally, the proposed model of gendered career choices can be employed for explaining differences within sexes. Besides, the model argues that not primarily intelligence but often external factors shape career choices.

Details

Discourses on Gender and Sexual Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-197-3

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2000

Maria Närhinen, Aulikki Nissinen and Pekka Puska

To test the feasibility of the use of supermarket sales data in evaluating a local point of purchase intervention and to assess the impact of the intervention six and 12…

Abstract

To test the feasibility of the use of supermarket sales data in evaluating a local point of purchase intervention and to assess the impact of the intervention six and 12 months later. Staged point of purchase intervention pilot study followed by a longitudinal observational study. The study was carried out in one supermarket in Mikkeli, Finland. Foods were classified as healthier or reference products based on their labelled content of salt and saturated fat. The sales of packaged foods containing reduced amounts of salt and/or saturated fat were promoted with a stepwise increasing intervention culminating in a “heart week”. In addition all unplanned promotional activities during the intervention were surveyed. Information on the sales of both the promoted products and reference products was collected daily from the supermarket’s computer system. Direct and proportional sales of both single products and whole food groups were analysed during the intervention and at follow‐up. In addition the supermarket environment and the supermarket’s advertising in the local newspaper were checked. Short‐term variations in the sales could be seen related to the promotion activities. During the heart week the sales of actively promoted healthier products increased by 37‐49 per cent. Variations in the sales of reference products could also be seen; the proportional sales of some healthier products declined significantly when the reference products were actively promoted. The supermarket environment was still affected by the intervention at both follow‐ups. The mean percentage salt content of the weekly sales had declined in all food groups and the mean percentage fat content had either declined or remained unchanged. Computerised sales data provide a useful and rapid means of evaluating supermarket based interventions. The intervention had an impact on the supermarket environment which was visible at follow‐up.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 102 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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