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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Behnam Seyyedi

The paper introduces a microwave and electrochemical-assisted method for synthesis of chlorine-derived iron phthalocyanine pigment and oxygen reduction reaction catalyst…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper introduces a microwave and electrochemical-assisted method for synthesis of chlorine-derived iron phthalocyanine pigment and oxygen reduction reaction catalyst nanoparticles. The aims of this study are to investigate the possibility of nano-scale particle size (<35 nm), high-efficiency product reaction, remove acidic wastewater, time optimization and maximize number of chlorine on aromatic rings.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a combined synthesis technique, which does not have the problems of the conventional methods. Chlorinated iron phthalocyanine nanoparticles have been fabricated using phthalic anhydride, urea (high purity), electrochemical-generated iron (II) cations and microwave irradiation as promoter. The approach yields a product of high quality, uniform particle size distribution and high efficiency and that was environment-friendly.

Findings

The particle size and time needed for the production of chlorinated iron phthalocyanine were about 35 nm and 7 min, respectively.

Research limitations/implications

The catalyst, that is used in this method, should be weighed carefully. In addition, the solvent should be a saturated solution of NaCl in water.

Practical implications

The method provides a simple and practical solution to improving the synthesis of an iron-based catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction.

Originality/value

The combined method for synthesis of chlorinated iron phthalocyanine was novel and can find numerous applications in the industry, especially as an oxygen reduction reaction non-precious metal catalyst.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Behnam Seyyedi

The purpose of this paper is to introduce bio-inspired FeN4-S-C black nano-electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in an alkaline medium. The FeN4-S-C…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce bio-inspired FeN4-S-C black nano-electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in an alkaline medium. The FeN4-S-C derived without pyrolysis of precursors in high temperature is recognized as a new electrocatalyst for the ORR in an alkaline electrolyte. For the proper design of bio-inspired nano-electrocatalyst for the ORR performance, chlorinated iron (II) phthalocyanine nanoparticles were used as templates for achieving the active sites in aqueous KOH by rotating disk electrode methods. The most active FeN4-S-C catalyst exhibited a remarkable ORR activity in the alkaline medium. The objectives of this paper are to investigate the possibility of nanoscale particles size (˜5nm) of electrocatalyst, to achieve four-electron transfer mechanism and to exhibit much superior catalytic stability in measurements. This paper will shed light on bio-inspired FeN4-S-C materials for the ORR catalysis in alkaline fuel cells.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a new bio-inspired nano-electrocatalyst for the ORR, which has activity nearby platinum/carbon electrocatalyst. Chlorinated iron phthalocyanine nanoparticles have been used as FeN4 template, which is the key point for the ORR. Bio-inspired nano-electrocatalyst has been fabricated using chlorinated iron phthalocyanine, sodium sulphide and carbon black.

Findings

The particles’ size was 5 nm and electron transfer number was 4.

Research limitations/implications

The catalyst that is used in this method should be weighed carefully. In addition, the solvent should be a saturated solution of NaCl in water.

Practical implications

The method provides a simple and practical solution to improving the synthesis of iron-based catalyst for ORR.

Originality/value

The method for the synthesis of bio-inspired electrocatalyst was novel and can find numerous applications in industries, especially as ORR non-precious metal catalyst.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 46 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2014

Behnam Seyyedi, Mohammad Edrisi, Maryam Seyyedi and Gholamreza Mahdavinia

The paper introduces a new method for single step synthesis of copper phthalocyanine green pigment using microwave irradiation to activate C−H bonds on the aromatic rings…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper introduces a new method for single step synthesis of copper phthalocyanine green pigment using microwave irradiation to activate C−H bonds on the aromatic rings that are possible by creation of chlorine radicals. The aims of this study are to investigate the possibility of high-efficiency product reaction, removing acidic wastewater, time optimization, and maximizing number of chlorine on aromatic rings.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a new synthesis technique, which does not have the problems of the conventional methods. Microwave irradiation is used as a chemical reaction initiator by creation of chlorine radicals in saturated aqueous solution of sodium chloride and C−H bond activation on aromatic rings. The approach yields to a high quality of product, uniform particle size distribution, high efficiency and an environmental friendly procedure.

Findings

The paper introduces the use of suitable materials and water solvents in chemical reactions under microwave radiation at low temperatures. This shows that the microwave irradiation activates C−H bonds on aromatic rings and creates chlorine radicals at the same time, which results in relatively fast reaction of synthesis copper phthalocyanine green.

Research limitations/implications

The ammonium molybdate catalyst, which is used in this method, should be weighed carefully. The effects of transition metals on chemical reactions in the presence of microwave irradiation can also be chlorinated other unsaturated bonds.

Practical implications

The method develops a simple and practical solution to improve the synthesis of phthalocyanine green pigment.

Originality/value

The synthesis method of copper phthalocyanine green pigment is novel. CuPhcCl16 has numerous applications in industrial.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 43 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1972

P.J. Barnes

This article is an attempt to discuss pigments used in the paint, printing ink, plastics and rubber industries in a general way, prior to their more detailed description…

Abstract

This article is an attempt to discuss pigments used in the paint, printing ink, plastics and rubber industries in a general way, prior to their more detailed description by specialists in the subsequent articles in this issue of the journal.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 1 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1984

Eric Carter

Micaceous iron oxide (MIO) paints are employed throughout the world to provide long‐life corrosion protection for structural steelwork.

Abstract

Micaceous iron oxide (MIO) paints are employed throughout the world to provide long‐life corrosion protection for structural steelwork.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1979

C.A. Smith

The ink maker and printer are vitally concerned with the behaviour to be expected from a pigment in terms of its contribution to printing properties (such as rheology…

Abstract

The ink maker and printer are vitally concerned with the behaviour to be expected from a pigment in terms of its contribution to printing properties (such as rheology, bleeding, damping water incompatibility), print appearance (colour, lustre), and useful service life (fading, resistance to chemical attack). Although practical printing tests can properly demonstrate the ultimate utility of a pigment for an intended use, sufficient preliminary data can normally be assembled to suggest candidate pigments suitable for evaluation.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1977

ABM Chemicals Ltd is exhibiting its range of photosensitisers for uv curing including the Glocure benzoin ethers. These highly cost effective materials ensure maximum…

Abstract

ABM Chemicals Ltd is exhibiting its range of photosensitisers for uv curing including the Glocure benzoin ethers. These highly cost effective materials ensure maximum utilisation of uv energy for the polymerisation process.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1979

Americus

Henning [Metal Finishing, 75, May (1977) p. 64] has compared water‐borne primers and water‐borne total systems for appliances with the corresponding solvent‐based…

Abstract

Henning [Metal Finishing, 75, May (1977) p. 64] has compared water‐borne primers and water‐borne total systems for appliances with the corresponding solvent‐based compositions and concludes that high quality finishes are indeed available from water‐based compositions. The author points out that two types of water‐borne coatings are available. The more common emulsion type generally offers good properties and has less than five per cent of organic cosolvent. The water‐soluble or water‐dispersible coatings, on the other hand, generally have properties equal to solvent‐borne coatings but contain up to twenty per cent of organic cosolvent. Generally, the water‐soluble types are more readily applied. On the other hand, they invariably require baking whereas emulsion type coatings can, of course, be formulated for architectural or maintenance applications. Emulsion systems are more sensitive, however, to freezing than are the water‐soluble compositions.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 8 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1982

Americus

Polymer Structure. A number of articles describe basic research on polymers of interest to the paint industry. Thus Sperling [Journal of Polymer Science, Macromolecular

Abstract

Polymer Structure. A number of articles describe basic research on polymers of interest to the paint industry. Thus Sperling [Journal of Polymer Science, Macromolecular Reviews, 12 (1977) p. 141] describes interpenetrating polymer networks as structures which result when a crosslinked polymer is swelled by a monomer which contains also a crosslinking or polymerising agent. The monomer is thus polymerised in situ, presumably in the voids and intersticies provided by the initial crosslinked polymer. In this way, Sperling describes the morphology and mechanical properties of interpenetrating polymer networks.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1963

E.R. BRAITHWAITE and G.W. ROWE

LONG before man learnt to make fire by the friction of wood, he experienced the burden of friction in dragging home his kill. Perhaps it is not too fanciful to suppose…

Abstract

LONG before man learnt to make fire by the friction of wood, he experienced the burden of friction in dragging home his kill. Perhaps it is not too fanciful to suppose that the torn sides of his beast gave the first solid lubricant. Blood and mutton fat were seriously recommended as lubricants for church bell trunnions as recently as the 17th century. Indoed we still reckon fatty acids the best of all boundary lubricants. The range of man's activities has increased enormously in the present century, and particularly in the last few decades. Men have circled the earth in space; a space ship is on its way to examine another planet; terrestrial man is boring to the bottom of the earth's crust; others have descended to the depths of the ocean, and oven established a home on the floor of the Mediterranean, Speeds have increased by factors of thousands, temperatures range from near absolute zero to thousands of degrees; and a new environment of high‐intensity nuclear radiation has been created. Still, objects must move over and along each other in these exotic conditions; and to a large extent solid lubricants can provide the answer to the frictional problems.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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