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Article
Publication date: 15 November 2012

Jui‐Min Li

The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether Chinese philosophy can have positive results in long‐term training.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether Chinese philosophy can have positive results in long‐term training.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examined its effect based on Kirkpatrick's model. The qualitative data were the interviews, observations, and documents from 2004 to 2012. The quantitative data included three questionnaires for the employees and the customers distributed in 2005, 2006, and from 2009 to 2011, with 3,601 valid ones in total.

Findings

The results show that using Chinese philosophy as training content can increase trainees' training motivation. In addition, better training motivation can bring positive reaction, learning, and motivation for transfer. Second, at the individual level, Chinese philosophy can increase the employees' motivation for transfer and workplace spirituality. Third, at the organizational level, it shows an enhancement of service quality (SQ).

Practical implications

First, human resource (HR) practices can take the country's cultural features into account and do not necessarily have to adopt Western management theories and practices. Second, the “best practice” can be a useful reference for HR managers in the Chinese organizational context. Finally, the training contents are not necessarily about knowledge or skills. For the service industries with intensive interaction with customers, enhancing work attitude can further increase SQ.

Originality/value

First, Chinese philosophy involves the concepts of business management. Second, this longitudinal research pointed out that Chinese philosophy can enhance employees' workplace spirituality; and further, it enhanced the SQ. Third, the training evaluation result is more comprehensive for it includes individual level and organizational level.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2016

Ning Zhang

Buildings are the condensation of the national, ethnic, or cultural identity. They are also the specific materialized form of the national social systems, folk customs…

Abstract

Buildings are the condensation of the national, ethnic, or cultural identity. They are also the specific materialized form of the national social systems, folk customs, and ideologies. Architectural design and philosophy constitute an isomorphic relationship with each other. This study focuses on the Chinese traditional philosophy. Using Kuanzhai Alley in Chengdu as an example, philosophical expressions, such as “holistic thinking,” “group form layout,” “heaven and man,” “yin–yang and the five elements,” “ancient architecture design,” “good” aesthetic concepts, and “conformal”rationalism, are discussed from the aspects of the selection of the environment, spatial layout, architectural symbol, planning, and design significance. The traditional architectural forms and types are analyzed and interpreted based on the Chinese traditional philosophy. The role of the ancient Chinese philosophy in the Designs of Chinese Buildings is summarized. Traditional ideas on Chinese architecture should be recognized from the aspect of philosophy to propose a new design direction for developing modern Chinese architectural designs.

Details

Open House International, vol. 41 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 26 February 2018

Li Lin, Peter Ping Li and Hein Roelfsema

As the global presence of Chinese firms grows, increasing numbers of Chinese managers are working abroad as expatriates. However, little attention has been paid to such…

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Abstract

Purpose

As the global presence of Chinese firms grows, increasing numbers of Chinese managers are working abroad as expatriates. However, little attention has been paid to such Chinese expatriate managers and their leadership challenges in an inter-cultural context, especially across a large cultural distance. To fill the gap in the literature concerning the leadership challenges for expatriate managers in an inter-cultural context, the purpose of this paper is to elucidate the leadership styles of Chinese expatriate managers from the perspectives of three traditional Chinese philosophies (i.e. Confucianism, Taoism, and Legalism) in the inter-cultural context of the Netherlands.

Design/methodology/approach

The data for this qualitative study were collected via semi-structured, open-ended, narrative interviews with 30 Chinese expatriate managers in the Netherlands.

Findings

The results clearly show that the leadership style of Chinese expatriate managers is deeply rooted in the three traditional Chinese philosophies of Confucianism, Taoism, and Legalism, even in an inter-cultural context. Specifically, the study reveals two salient aspects of how Chinese expatriate managers frame and interact with a foreign cultural context from the perspectives of traditional Chinese philosophies. First, the Chinese expatriate managers reported an initial cultural shock related to frictions between the foreign cultural context and Confucianism or Taoism, but less so in the case of Legalism. Second, the Chinese expatriate managers also reported that their interactions with the Dutch culture are best described as a balance between partial conflict and partial complementarity (thus, a duality). In this sense, the leadership style of Chinese expatriate managers is influenced jointly by the three traditional Chinese philosophies and certain elements of the foreign cultural context. This is consistent with the Chinese perspective of yin-yang balancing.

Originality/value

This study is among the first to offer a more nuanced and highly contextualized understanding of leadership in the unique case of expatriate managers from an emerging market (e.g. China) in an advanced economy (e.g. the Netherlands). The authors call for more research to apply the unique perspective of yin-yang balancing in an inter-cultural context. The authors posit that this approach represents the most salient implication of this study. For practical implications, the authors argue that expatriate leaders should carefully manage the interplay between their deep-rooted home-country philosophies and their salient host-country culture. Reflecting on traditional philosophies in another culture can facilitate inter-cultural leadership training for Chinese expatriates.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 June 2014

Richard Li-Hua and Lucy Lu

The purpose of this paper is to bridge the knowledge gap in designing MBA strategy between China and the West by examining the content, context and process of MBA…

1184

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to bridge the knowledge gap in designing MBA strategy between China and the West by examining the content, context and process of MBA delivery. This paper challenges the assumptions and pedagogical approach underpinning the current design and delivery of MBA programmes that were originally moulded with Western management history and development in the era of globalization. There is consensus that MBA was used to train business managers; however, nowadays, people are inclined to state that MBA is used to develop global business leaders or full-fledged global competitors. How can we develop global business leaders without a global vision when designing MBA strategy?

Design/methodology/approach

Based on extensive literature review and critical analyses through the strategic management approach, this paper examines the status quo of current MBA programmes in the West and in China. This paper presents a conceptual framework that draws on the current MBA literature and on-going debates around management education and development in the West and in China.

Findings

The designing strategy of MBA has been originally strongly influenced by Western ideology and ethos. Therefore, the difficulties of management knowledge transfer are often explained through culture acclimatization and emphasize has been on cultural divergence rather than convergence. With synthesis between Western and Eastern management identified, we argue that the appropriateness and effectiveness of the traditional philosophy of MBA designing strategy based on Western management history has been challenged in the 21st century. The perception has fuelled criticism of business schools in the post-recession. They have come under fire for allegedly failing in their obligations to educate socially responsible business leaders (Barker, 2010). This leads to rethinking of the philosophy and vision underpinning the MBA designing strategy. A new philosophical approach – integration of Western management with Eastern philosophy has been under scrutiny, which is necessary in business education to enable future business leaders to become full-fledged competitors in the global market.

Originality/value

The output of this discussion helps to establish a conceptual framework which will provide strategic insight in enabling business/management school and MBA providers to address the current deficiency in MBA teaching and learning strategy and develop more appropriate arrangement when considering the design and development of a successful MBA programme in the 21st century.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Ming-Jer Chen

The purpose of this paper is to bridge the understanding of apparent dichotomies such as East and West, philosophy and social sciences, and antiquity and modernity, and to…

1393

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to bridge the understanding of apparent dichotomies such as East and West, philosophy and social sciences, and antiquity and modernity, and to continue the vibrant expansion of competitive dynamics study into the realm of East-West theoretical fusion.

Design/methodology/approach

The author looks to classical Chinese philosophy to discover the origins and nature of competitive dynamics. The paper develops the premise that the foundational thrusts of this contemporary Western management topic spring from ancient Eastern conceptions of duality, relativity, and time.

Findings

Research inroads are made along two paths. First, the paper traces the theoretical and philosophical underpinnings of competitive dynamics to Eastern thinking. Then by bridging what have customarily been perceived as fundamentally different paradigms, it reveals, in a new light, empirical findings in this strategy subfield.

Research limitations/implications

Linking Western management science, and specifically the study of competitive dynamics, to classical Eastern philosophy raises new research questions in the areas of international management and management education as well as competitive dynamics. In the latter, the paper suggests opportunities for exploring connections between traditional Chinese concepts and contemporary organizational and competition research issues, including competitive and cooperative relationships at the industry level. Future research may also investigate the fundamental differences and similarities between Eastern and Western philosophies, and their implications for competitive strategies.

Originality/value

From a relatively obscure corner of business academia, competitive dynamics now occupies a distinct place in strategic management research and is a topic of intense interest to scholars in a variety of disciplines. The usual view is that competitive dynamics fits squarely in the spectrum of social sciences, an organically home-grown area of Western study. This paper examines the topic from a distinctly different angle – through the lens of ancient Eastern philosophy – to discern deeper a deeper meaning and wider application.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 January 2021

Tianqi Wu and Kaiyan Da

By introducing the basic concepts and theories of the philosophy of information created by Kun Wu, and making some comparisons of the philosophy of information and related…

Abstract

Purpose

By introducing the basic concepts and theories of the philosophy of information created by Kun Wu, and making some comparisons of the philosophy of information and related information theories between Wu and other scholars, this paper aims to have Chinese philosophy of information widely known and understood by more people in the world, thus promoting the international exchanges between Chinese and Western scholars on the topic of philosophy of information.

Design/methodology/approach

The main research methods used in this paper are the literature review and the comparative study. On the one hand, it reviews some related concepts and theories in Kun Wu's academic works of philosophy of information. On the other hand, it compares the thoughts and viewpoints of Kun Wu with those of other scholars.

Findings

First, Kun Wu is the first person who has established a complete and comprehensive theoretical system of philosophy of information in China; second, Kun Wu's philosophy of information is significant in originality and value, which could be thought as the intellectual quintessence of information age, thus worth learning. Third, with more international exchanges, Chinese philosophy of information created by Wu will surely be more and more influential in philosophical circles at home and abroad.

Originality/value

It is a very valuable first-hand material for Western scholars to know and understand Chinese philosophy of information.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 77 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 November 2011

Jingfeng Li, Jiguang Wang and Wenbin Fan

China has long been dedicated to introducing the Western management ideas to the local enterprise practice. But the situation has changed since the financial crisis, and…

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Abstract

Purpose

China has long been dedicated to introducing the Western management ideas to the local enterprise practice. But the situation has changed since the financial crisis, and the China model has become a hot word with its fast recovery from crisis. Moreover, Chinese traditional culture has become increasingly popular. Yin and yang are the most familiar Chinese philosophical terms to Western minds, and also the core concept of Chinese Taoist philosophy. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how the yin yang or lao‐tzu influences a firm's core competence and performance, and to demonstrate that the Taoist‐oriented Chinese culture remains meaningful and in many situations powerful in enterprise practice.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study is carried out from Town Star Ltd, established in 2001, and located in Linfen city, Shanxi province, China, a city which topped the list of the world's most polluted cities. It is an integrated joint‐stock company, specializing in coal coking chemical industry, gardening, logistics and technology development. Based on the humanized management doctrine, the company has formed the 5S management model which boosts its rapid and sustainable development. It coped well in major junctures such as industry restructuring and transferring, financial crisis, etc. Five key dimensions of the yin and yang, which were applied to the leader's daily behaviors and management style, are: Wu‐wei (inaction), Wu (emptiness), hardness with softness, moderation and He‐xie (harmony). First, this paper built a dynamic company growth model based on this philosophy which enhanced the core competitiveness effectively by emotional management innovation and personalized HRM, among which its pivotal regulator of variables is just yin yang conversion degree. Then an approach is provided to validate the model with empirical data collected from the years 2001‐2010 (2001‐2005, 2006‐2008, 2009‐2010) of Town Star Ltd.

Findings

It is demonstrated that yin yang ideology embedded in the company growth model organically is an important means to increase marginal benefit. In practice, the firm with yin yang philosophical ideology would shape a management paradigm which combined rules and human nature appropriately to a family‐oriented business atmosphere. Based on the above philosophical wisdom, Town Star Ltd has harvested good economic and social benefits, strong core competence through the elaborately constructed unique management model and harmonious humanity environment.

Originality/value

This paper opens an avenue for indigenous firms, as a framework for guiding management research and practice in coping with the post‐crisis era. In addition, it is expected to attract more attention from scholars, entrepreneurs both in China and in the rest of the world, to contribute to knowledge creation in Chinese management studies.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 1999

Wenxian Zhang

The Internet is full of resources on China and Chinese studies. However, many new users are often overwhelmed by the vast amount of information on the Web. This paper is…

1807

Abstract

The Internet is full of resources on China and Chinese studies. However, many new users are often overwhelmed by the vast amount of information on the Web. This paper is to offer a starting point for inexperienced users interested in finding information over the Internet on Chinese culture, art, language, literature, history, philosophy and current affairs, etc. It focuses on the World Wide Web resources only, and choices of entry are selective rather than exhaustive.

Details

Asian Libraries, vol. 8 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1017-6748

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 April 2011

Andrew Man Joe Ma and Bramwell Osula

This paper seeks to examine an emerging synergetic model of organizational leadership that is founded on Chinese Taoism and complex adaptive system (CAS).

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to examine an emerging synergetic model of organizational leadership that is founded on Chinese Taoism and complex adaptive system (CAS).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is formed around a comparative analysis of two conceptual models – the CAS model that is founded on what is known as the new science and a more ancient model that is based on Chinese Taoism.

Findings

While the two models were developed more than 2,500 years apart, this paper shows a degree of alignment between Eastern wisdom and the latest Western scientific theory. The essence of what is characterized as Taoistic leadership emphasizes alignment with “The Way” and is based on the interplay of “Yin/Yang.” This is similar to the core elements of CAS that emphasizes the importance of “the Attractor” and the interplay of “Order/Disorder.”

Research limitations/implications

This paper points out the promise of a convergence of ancient wisdom from China, with the latest new science view on organizational behavior. The outcome is a complementary leadership model that is undergirded by both ethical values and scientific support.

Practical implications

This paper goes one step beyond traditional analyzes by dissecting the two key streams of Chinese philosophy, comparing and contrasting these with CAS.

Originality/value

Chinese leaders today tend to be influenced by a leadership style that can be broadly characterized as reflecting principles of Confucianism. These principles support a more hierarchical formulation of leadership and organizations that are more centralized and less adaptive to today's dynamic environment. This paper offers an alternative leadership model, grounded in the Tao philosophy that is said to be more accommodating of the complexities of organizational behavior today. It also offers value to Western leaders in appreciation of the ancient wisdom and values in Taoism relating to today's organizational behavior and leadership.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 17 June 2016

Shoko Yamada

This chapter highlights the characteristics of Asia through the analysis of policy-related documents by five donor countries, namely Japan, South Korea, China, India and…

Abstract

This chapter highlights the characteristics of Asia through the analysis of policy-related documents by five donor countries, namely Japan, South Korea, China, India and Thailand. It will also examine the roles played by regional bodies such as the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (SEAMEO) and ASPBAE (the Asia South Pacific Association for Basic and Adult Education) as the horizontal channels influencing aid policies in respective countries. Together with the analysis of the national and organizational policies, the regional process of building consensus on the post-2015 agenda is examined, with a particular focus on the Asia-Pacific Regional Education Conference (APREC) held in August 2014.

The analysis reveals that the region has two faces: one is imaginary and the other is functional. There is a common trend across Asian donors to refer to their historical ties with regions and countries to which they provide assistance and their traditional notions of education and development. They highlight Asian features in contrast to conventional aid principles and approaches based on the Western value system, either apparently or in a muted manner. In this sense, the imagined community of Asia with common cultural roots is perceived by the policymakers across the board.

At the same time, administratively, the importance of the region as a stage between the national and global levels is recognized increasingly in the multilateral global governance structure. With this broadened participatory structure, as discussed in the chapter ‘Post-EFA Global Discourse: The Process of Shaping the Shared View of the ‘Education Community’’, the expected function of the region to transmit the norms and requests from the global level and to collect and summarize national voices has increased.

Details

Post-Education-Forall and Sustainable Development Paradigm: Structural Changes with Diversifying Actors and Norms
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-271-5

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 10000