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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2009

Hanqin Qiu Zhang, York Qi Yan and Yiping Li

This study attempts to demystify the mechanism behind the negative event of the so‐called “zero‐commission” tours that have become synonymous with the booming Chinese

Abstract

Purpose

This study attempts to demystify the mechanism behind the negative event of the so‐called “zero‐commission” tours that have become synonymous with the booming Chinese outbound tourism in the past decade.

Design/methodology/approach

Utilizing the Atlas.ti computer qualitative analysis software, nine proposed key factors constituting the zero‐tour phenomenon are examined and proven through a content analysis of 30 case studies.

Findings

The validity of the proposed nine factors causing the zero‐tour and their respective degrees of relevance to the phenomenon are also investigated and empirically tested in the study.

Research limitations/implications

The study used the cases from destinations such as Hong Kong and Thailand. It will be better if cases from other destinations such as Malaysia, Japan, Singapore, and Australia can be examined in future studies since the zero‐tour phenomenon also exists in other countries.

Practical implications

This study may serve as a reference for the drafting and implementation of both policy and business countermeasures to curb the zero‐commission tours. Consequently, this would facilitate more positive contributions of the Chinese outbound tourism industry to global tourism development.

Originality/value

No empirical study on the zero‐tour phenomenon was found in the literature. Based on the game theory, the proposed and empirically tested nine factors can serve as the foundation on which future studies on the zero‐commission tour can be conducted.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Book part
Publication date: 7 December 2016

Songshan (Sam) Huang

Laws, regulations, and policies, including specific intergovernmental visa agreements, exert significant influences on people’s mobility and cross-border travels. Such…

Abstract

Laws, regulations, and policies, including specific intergovernmental visa agreements, exert significant influences on people’s mobility and cross-border travels. Such forces are powerful in shaping the emerging Asian tourism market. This chapter provides a critical review and analysis of the laws and regulations that have shaped Chinese outbound tourism. It first reviews the evolution of China’s policies and government attitude toward outbound tourism. The three tourism administration regulations promulgated by the State Council are then reviewed and their implications for outbound tourism are discussed. The Tourism Law enacted in 2013 is reviewed and discussed separately due to its significance and supreme power in China’s legal system. Finally, the chapter discusses the impact of intergovernmental visa facilitation arrangements on Chinese outbound tourism.

Details

The World Meets Asian Tourists
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-219-1

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Article
Publication date: 12 December 2016

Rob Law, Sunny Sun, Davis Ka Chio Fong, Lawrence Hoc Nang Fong and Hui Fu

This paper aims to identify the changes of researched destinations along with the Approved Destination Status scheme to investigate the development of research problems…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify the changes of researched destinations along with the Approved Destination Status scheme to investigate the development of research problems, and to track the changes of research topics in the context of the development of China’s outbound tourism. The research methods and applied theories are also identified and analyzed.

Design/methodology/approach

Three large databases, namely, ScienceDirect, EBSCOhost and Google Scholar, were selected to search for published articles (i.e. 107 empirical articles and 15 review/policy articles) related to China’s outbound tourism. Thereafter, the retrieved articles were categorized and analyzed. Finally, a theoretical framework was provided for future studies on China’s outbound tourism.

Findings

The major findings indicated that the main topics related to China’s outbound tourism included market segmentation, travel motivation and travel behavior. One or two theories are generally applied to investigate a certain topic. The most common research methods are interviews and a questionnaire survey.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies are suggested to apply more theories to investigate one topic. A single theory can also be applied to investigate different topics. Adopting different and innovative research methods, such as online interaction observation, can also be considered.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature through an in-depth qualitative assessment of China’s outbound tourism literature, comparing researched destinations with the Approved Destination Status policies, and reviewing articles based on research.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 28 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 3 December 2018

Rong Huang and Tao Xu

As the Chinese outbound travel market has become a paramount target for world tourism with significant growth potential, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the impact…

Abstract

Purpose

As the Chinese outbound travel market has become a paramount target for world tourism with significant growth potential, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the impact that the Chinese outbound travel market has on the European tourism industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews both academic and trade literature to provide an overview of the opportunities and challenges that the China outbound travel market might bring to the European tourism industry.

Findings

The paper presents the major topics relating to China outbound tourism research and the current research gaps. Chinese outbound tourists are not a homogenous group of tourists. The paper addresses opportunities and challenges from two key segments of China outbound travel (Chinese international students and Chinese senior tourists).

Practical implications

The paper calls for alternative and innovative research methods and research behaviour in tracking the impact of Chinese outbound tourists. Closer collaboration between academics and industry practitioners might provide a better understanding of this market.

Originality/value

The paper offers recent insights on the Chinese outbound tourism market based on an analysis of relevant literature by both academics and industry practitioners. This allows the relevant stakeholders to adopt proactive strategies to minimise potential negative impacts and maximise opportunities.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 10 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

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Book part
Publication date: 7 December 2016

Abstract

Details

The World Meets Asian Tourists
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-219-1

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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2021

Yaping Liu, Huike Shi, Yinchang Li and Asad Amin

This study aims to explore the factors influencing the post-pandemic intentions of Chinese residents to participate in outbound travel. The mechanism by which residents'…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the factors influencing the post-pandemic intentions of Chinese residents to participate in outbound travel. The mechanism by which residents' perception of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) influenced their outbound travel intentions are studied.

Design/methodology/approach

This study developed an extended theory of planned behavior (TPB) model and used structural equations to analyze data received from 432 questionnaires. Responses were obtained through a combination of online surveys and a traditional paper-based distribution of questionnaires.

Findings

Results showed that attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and past outbound travel behavior have significant positive effects on post-pandemic outbound travel intentions. Although the perception of COVID-19 directly and negatively influences outbound travel intentions, it also has an indirect influence on outbound travel intentions through the mediating effect of non-pharmaceutical interventions. The authors also found that risk tolerance has a negative moderating effect on the direct impact of residents' perception of COVID-19 on their travel intentions.

Practical implications

The findings can serve as a reference for formulating appropriate tourism development policies by government agencies, tourism management departments and tourism enterprises in destination countries.

Originality/value

This study developed an extended TPB model by adding more constructs into the TPB model. Compared with the original TPB model, the extended TPB model has better explanatory power of post-pandemic travel intentions. The study also provides evidence for the applicability of the TPB model in studying travel intentions within the context of major public health emergencies and has expanded the application scope of the TPB model.

新冠肺炎疫情后中国居民出境旅游意愿的影响因素研究······································——基于疫情感知的扩展TPB模型

摘要

研究目的

本研究致力于探索新冠肺炎疫情后(以下简称“疫情”)中国居民出境旅游意愿的影响因素, 以及疫情感知对出境旅游意愿的作用机制。

设计/方法/手段

本文以TPB理论为基础, 通过构建扩展TPB模型, 并利用结构方程对432份问卷进行数据分析。问卷通过网络发放与传统纸质问卷调研相结合的方式获得。

研究发现

态度、主观规范、感知行为控制及过去出境旅游行为对中国居民疫情后出境旅游意愿具有显著正向影响; 疫情感知在直接负向影响出境旅游意愿的同时, 还通过非药物干预行为的中介作用间接影响出境旅游意愿; 在疫情感知对出境旅游意愿的直接影响中, 风险容忍度起着负向调节作用。

实际意义

研究结果对旅游目的地政府、旅游管理部门及旅游企业制定相应旅游发展政策具有一定前瞻性参考价值。

原创性/价值

本文通过在原始TPB模型的基础上加入更多变量, 进而构建了扩展TPB模型。与原始模型相比, 扩展TPB模型对疫情蔓延背景下中国居民疫情后出境旅游意愿有着更好的解释力和预测力。本文证实了在突发重大公共卫生事件背景下TPB模型对于研究旅游意愿的适用性, 扩展了TPB模型的应用范围。

Investigación sobre los factores que influyen en la voluntad de viajar al extranjero de los residentes chinos después de la nueva epidemia de neumonía coronaria: un modelo extendido de TPB basado en la percepción de la epidemia

Resumen

Propósito

Este estudio tiene como objetivo explorar los factores que influyen en las intenciones posteriores a la pandemia de los residentes chinos de participar en viajes al extranjero. Se estudia el mecanismo por el cual la percepción de los residentes sobre la enfermedad por coronavirus (COVID-19) influyó en sus intenciones de viajar al extranjero.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Este estudio tiene como objetivo explorar los factores que influyen en la intención de viaje de salida de los residentes chinos después de la pandemia, en particular el mecanismo por el cual la percepción de los residentes de COVID-19 influyó en sus intenciones de viaje de salida.

Hallazgos

Los resultados mostraron que la actitud, las normas subjetivas, el control conductual percibido y el comportamiento de viajes de ida y vuelta en el pasado tienen efectos positivos significativos sobre la intención de viajar de ida después de la pandemia. Si bien la percepción de COVID-19 influye directamente de forma negativa en la intención de viaje de ida, también influye indirectamente en la intención de viaje de ida a través del efecto mediador de las intervenciones no farmacéuticas. También encontramos que la tolerancia al riesgo tiene un efecto moderador negativo sobre el impacto directo de la percepción de los residentes sobre el COVID-19 en la intención de viaje.

Implicaciones prácticas

Nuestros hallazgos se pueden utilizar como referencia para las agencias gubernamentales, los departamentos de gestión del turismo y las empresas turísticas en los países de destino en la formulación de políticas de desarrollo turístico adecuadas.

Originalidad/valor

Este estudio desarrolló un modelo TPB extendido agregando más constructos en el modelo TPB. En comparación con el modelo TPB original, el modelo TPB extendido tiene un mejor poder explicativo de las intenciones de viaje posteriores a una pandemia en el contexto de una pandemia. Este estudio también proporcionó evidencia de la aplicabilidad del modelo TPB para estudiar las intenciones de viaje en el contexto de las principales emergencias de salud pública y amplió el ámbito de aplicación del modelo TPB.

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2001

Don Qun and Dou Jie

This paper gives a preliminary analysis of the development of mainland China's outbound tourism market, including national policy, classifications, main destinations…

Abstract

This paper gives a preliminary analysis of the development of mainland China's outbound tourism market, including national policy, classifications, main destinations, tourism source regions and so on. It also includes case studies from Hong Kong and Guangdong Province. Finally, it briefly outlines the problems of the market and the new policy in this field.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 56 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 30 June 2020

Zhiyong Li, Honglin Chen, Songshan (Sam) Huang, Phakcharee Wanichwasin and Rui Cui

Thailand has served as a major outbound tourist destination for Chinese tourists for decades. Behaviours demonstrated by Chinese tourists in Thailand are believed to have…

Abstract

Purpose

Thailand has served as a major outbound tourist destination for Chinese tourists for decades. Behaviours demonstrated by Chinese tourists in Thailand are believed to have created an image of Chinese outbound tourists among the residents and have impacted on the sustainability of Thai tourism. This study aims to contribute a more comprehensive and nuanced understanding of the image of Chinese outbound tourists from the perspective of Thai residents’.

Design/methodology/approach

In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 Thai residents who have frequent contact with Chinese tourists.

Findings

The results reveal that Thai residents’ perceptions of Chinese tourists include both positive and negative images. Positive images consist of being filial and friendly (e.g. taking good care of the elderly and having close emotional ties within their touring group) and being wealthy and auspicious (e.g. having a lot of money to spend and tipping generously). Negative images include moral norms (e.g. making loud noises and jumping into a queue), hygiene habits (e.g. littering and spitting) and religious culture (e.g. touching and climbing Buddha statues).

Originality/value

This qualitative research promotes the study of destination residents’ perceptions of tourists’ in the context of outbound tourism and enriches the application of social representation theory from the perspective of residents in the field of tourism marketing. It generates a more nuanced comprehension of Thai residents’ perceptions of Chinese tourists, contributes to the government’s formulation of guidelines for civilised tourism and has benefits to the sustainable development of tourism destinations.

泰国居民对中国游客的形象感知

摘要

目的

几十年来, 泰国一直是中国游客的主要出境旅游目的地。中国游客在泰国表现出的行为在居民中创造了中国出境游客的形象, 并影响了泰国旅游业的可持续性。这项研究旨在从泰国居民的感知出发, 对中国出境游客的形象进行更全面、细致的了解。

设计/方法/方法

对15位经常与中国游客接触的泰国居民进行了深入访谈。

结果

结果表明, 泰国居民对中国游客形象的感知既包括正面形象也包括负面形象。正面的形象包括孝顺和友善(例如, 照顾老人, 并在其旅行团中保持紧密的情感联系), 富有和吉祥(例如, 有很多钱可花, 并慷慨地付小费), 而负面的形象则包括道德规范(例如, 大声喧哗, 并插队), 卫生习惯(例如, 乱扔垃圾和随地吐痰)以及宗教文化(例如, 触摸和爬到佛像上)。

独创性/价值

这项定性研究弥补了出境旅游背景下目的地居民对游客形象的感知的差距, 并且从居民的角度出发丰富了社会表象理论在旅游营销领域的应用。它使泰国居民对中国游客的认识更加细致, 有助于政府制定有针对性的文明旅游指导方针, 有利于旅游目的地未来的可持续发展。

Percepción de los residents tailandeses sobre el comportamiento de los turistas chinos

Objetivo

Por décadas, Tailandia ha sido un principal destino tulístico de turismo emisor para los turistas chinos.El comportamiento de los turistas chinos en Tailandia ha impresionado las imagenes de los turistas chinos emisores a los habitantes, y ha afectado la sostenibilidad de la industria turística de Tailandia. Esta investigación tiene como objetivo comenzar con la percepción de los habitantes tailandeses para conocer una comprensión más completa y detallada de las imagenes de los turistas chinos emisores.

Diseñar/Manera/Manera

Entrevisitar en profundidad a 15 habitantes tailandeses que a menudo contactan con los turistas chinos.

Resultado

Los resultados muestran, las percepciones de los habitantes tailandeses de las imagenes de los turistas chinos contienen las imagenes positivas y negativas. Los imágenes positivas incluyen fiedad filial y amabilidad (por ejemplo, cuida a los ancianos y mantiene una estrecha conexión emocional con su grupo de viaje), riqueza y buena suerte (Por ejemplo, tiene mucho dinero para gastar y propina generosa.) pero las imagenes negativas incluyen las normas étias (por ejemplo, hace ruido fuerte y corta en línea.) los hábitos de higienes (por ejemplo, tira basura al azar y escupiendo por todas partes.) y cultura religiosa (por ejemplo, toca y trepa los estatuas de Buda.)

Originalidad/Valor

Esta investigación cualitativa cierra la brecha en los percepciones de los habitantes de desino de las imagenes de turistas en el contexto del turisimo emisor y comenza con los aspectos de los habitantes enriquece la aplicación de la teoría de la representación social en el campo de marketing turístico. Deja los habitantes tailanteses conocer a los turistas chinos más detallada y ayuda al gobierno a desarrollar pautas específicas de turismo civilizado y es benificioso para el futuro desarrollo sostenible de los destinos turísticos.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Book part
Publication date: 7 December 2016

Nevenka Čavlek

The awareness of Eastern Europe within China is mostly tied to the shared notion of Communist control. During the last half century, educational and cultural links were…

Abstract

The awareness of Eastern Europe within China is mostly tied to the shared notion of Communist control. During the last half century, educational and cultural links were established which often resonated in the minds and desired experiences of many Chinese tourists. This chapter explores the meaning of these Asian-European links for Croatia by using economic data and archival evidence. The analysis is framed within the context of China’s policy toward Central and Eastern Europe. The work seeks to offer a better understanding of the politico-economic decisions that shape contemporary tourism flows and interests, not only in relation to Croatia, but also to similarly placed countries.

Details

The World Meets Asian Tourists
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-219-1

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Claire Liu and John S. Hull

The purpose of this paper is to report the findings of an exploratory research paper undertaken in Auckland, New Zealand which focused on the Approved Destination Status…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report the findings of an exploratory research paper undertaken in Auckland, New Zealand which focused on the Approved Destination Status (ADS) inbound tour operators’ understanding of the Chinese market and their strategies for developing Auckland as a sustainable destination.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten managers out of the 25 registered ADS inbound tour operators. The qualitative responses were coded and analysed using pattern identification and categorisation of emergent themes.

Findings

The findings profile New Zealand ADS inbound operators, summarise their knowledge of the Chinese market in terms of visitor expectations and characteristics, present the operator’s perceptions of Qualmark quality accreditation scheme and ADS Code of Conduct, and demonstrate the quality management initiatives they have developed in addition to addressing the issues within the Chinese market operation.

Originality/value

The study provides implications for destination marketers and tour operators in terms of the sustainable operation of the growing Chinese market.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

Keywords

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