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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2012

Johnben Teik‐Cheok Loy

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comparative review and analysis of peer‐reviewed journal articles on overseas Chinese family businesses.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comparative review and analysis of peer‐reviewed journal articles on overseas Chinese family businesses.

Design/methodology/approach

Journal articles were selected from relevant sources and broadly analyzed by research area, type of research (theoretical or empirical), geographical coverage, and method (quantitative or qualitative). The main themes of changes and continuity were identified and summarized.

Findings

The literature suggests that overseas Chinese family firms around the diaspora are beginning to differ from one nation to another. At the same time, the literature suggests the continuity of the challenge of the forces of globalization on overseas Chinese family firms and the need for these firms to learn to adapt and compete.

Research limitations/implications

The findings suggest that future research would need to pay more attention to differences between overseas Chinese family businesses from one country to another.

Originality/value

This paper provides a novel comparative analytical review and summary of the literature on overseas Chinese family businesses in peer‐reviewed journals. It is useful for scholars who are new to the area.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2019

Grisna Anggadwita, Werda Bagus Profityo, Dini Turipanam Alamanda and Anggraeni Permatasari

The family business is one of the business entities that contribute to the economy of a country. Succession in the family business occupies a strategic position…

Abstract

Purpose

The family business is one of the business entities that contribute to the economy of a country. Succession in the family business occupies a strategic position, especially in maintaining the company’s sustainability. The Chinese family business has unique characteristics in maintaining and growing its business with the cultural values that underlie how their business. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the cultural values of Chinese ethnic and their implications in the succession process in small family businesses in Bandung, Indonesia.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses a qualitative method with the in-depth interview method as a data collection technique. The sampling technique uses purposive sampling, while to test the validity of research data using a triangulation technique. A total of four small Chinese-owned family businesses participated as informants in this study. The study will identify the stage of succession process in the Chinese family business.

Findings

There are several stages identified in the succession planning of small Chinese-owned family business in Bandung which include succession antecedents, succession activities and desired outcomes. The results showed that small Chinese-owned family business in Bandung has not applied the rules and procedures in the succession process. Most of the Chinese family business in this research still holds Confucianism culture; they prioritize boys as business successors, who have a greater responsibility rather than successor with other gender.

Practical implications

Several implications are discussed. One of them is the Chinese family business holding cultural values in the process of family business succession.

Originality/value

This research is expected to provide theoretical and practical implications for academics and family companies with similar cases.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

Panikkos Poutziouris, Yong Wang and Sally Chan

This explorative paper considers the recent developments in the emerging small family business sector in post‐reform China as the country embraces socio‐economic and…

Abstract

This explorative paper considers the recent developments in the emerging small family business sector in post‐reform China as the country embraces socio‐economic and structural transition from a centrally planned to a market‐orientated system. The important contributions that Chinese small family firms play in the acceleration of private sector development across the social and industrial sectors as well as the geographic boundaries of the Pacific Rim are highlighted. The authors propose typologies of Chinese entrepreneurship and tentative enterprise policy recommendations for the future development of small private family businesses in China.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2019

Jacob Donald Tan, Hendrawan Supratikno, Rudy Pramono, John Tampil Purba and Innocentius Bernarto

This paper aims to explore and explain how predecessors (incumbents) of ethnic Chinese family small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Indonesia or appropriately…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore and explain how predecessors (incumbents) of ethnic Chinese family small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Indonesia or appropriately called Chinese-Indonesian family SMEs nurture their successors in procuring transgenerational entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 25 participants were involved in this qualitative study which employed a multi-method triangulation design with the following research instruments: semi-structured in-depth interviews with experts, incumbents and successors of Chinese-Indonesian family SMEs, field notes from conversations and observations during engagement with participants affiliated to the family SMEs, a focus group discussion with academicians and literature reviews. Another key approach is source triangulation, where different participants – e.g. from among the experts, from among the incumbents, successors and family members in each family business case were interviewed and engaged outside the interview sessions.

Findings

The proposed theoretical framework depicts comprehensive attributes of nurturing Chinese-Indonesian successors to continue enterprising at the helm of family SMEs. Propositions are used to explain the impacts these attributes have on transgenerational entrepreneurship specifically. At the personal level, incumbents have to focus on discovering the successors’ passions and nurture them in formal education, childhood involvement, as well as bridging them in entrepreneurial knowledge through cultural values, mentorship, autonomy and role modelling. Incumbents also had to plan for their retirements to provide autonomy for successors. At the firm/family level, incumbents must be able to set a foothold on family governance, firm governance and ownership distribution to reduce conflicts in their family businesses. Furthermore, as a minority group with past traumatic experiences, Chinese-Indonesian family SMEs usually equip themselves with contingency plans to protect their assets for the long-term future.

Research limitations/implications

This study was conducted in Indonesia amongst Chinese-Indonesian family SMEs and thus it is not generalisable in other settings. Literature reviews on family SMEs succession are still scant, especially on the Chinese-Indonesian.

Practical implications

Predecessors/incumbents of Chinese-Indonesian family SMEs could consider implementing the proposed nurturing strategies to their successors to sustain the longevity of the business based on trust, stewardship and harmony. The theoretical research framework resulted from this study offers general suggestions on how to nurture the next generation specifically from personal/interpersonal perspectives, which must be accompanied by specific scopes of family and firm aspects. This study extends beyond indicating the factors (ingredients) by explaining how to nurture transgenerational entrepreneurship (cook the ingredients) in SMEs for a tactful transition. Hence, the incumbents play vital roles and must be poised to adjust their mindsets to certain aspects indicated in this study.

Social implications

Most overseas Chinese businesses are family-owned, and besides Indonesia constituting the largest Chinese population outside the Republic of China, this 3 per cent of Indonesia’s people are known for controlling about 70 per cent of the economy. Furthermore, SMEs play a significant role in the Indonesian economy, as they provide about 97 per cent off the country’s employment and 57.8 per cent of the gross domestic product. Hence, the longevity of Chinese-Indonesian family SMEs must be well managed to bolster the economy and social welfare of the country.

Originality/value

A transgenerational entrepreneurship model in the context of Chinese-Indonesian family SMEs which incorporates the nurturing process of the successor to step up the helm of the business is proposed in the study.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2001

Tony Fu‐Lai Yu

Utilises recent advances in the evolutionary theories of the firm to analyse the competitive strategies of small Chinese family firms in Asian latecomer economies such as…

Abstract

Utilises recent advances in the evolutionary theories of the firm to analyse the competitive strategies of small Chinese family firms in Asian latecomer economies such as Hong Kong, Taiwan and Nangyang. Begins with an examination of the distinctive features of a Chinese family firm. Argues that the unique features of these establishments form firms’ resource bases and contribute to their competitive advantages. The two notable competitive advantages are: the capability to maintain a high degree of flexibility; and reducing transaction costs. These arguments are analysed from two aspects: first, the organisational structure and internal communication methods (internal capabilities), and second, the subcontracting networks (external capabilities). Furthermore, given the organisational structure and the resource bases, most Chinese family firms choose not to upgrade their technological bases within global competition. Rather, they tend to pursue guerrilla entrepreneurship, imitative follower‐my‐leader and specialise in international co‐ordination. These strategies enable them to compete and survive in the world market.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

Daniel M. Shapiro, Eric Gedajlovic and Carolyn Erdener

Much of the extant literature on the Chinese Family Firm highlights the unique cultural heritage and social context in which they are embedded as primary determinants of…

Abstract

Much of the extant literature on the Chinese Family Firm highlights the unique cultural heritage and social context in which they are embedded as primary determinants of their strategic behavior. In contrast, few studies have examined the strategic behavior of Chinese Family Firms from an economic perspective. In this paper, we address this gap in the literature by applying Dunning's eclectic theory of the MNE to the Chinese Family Firm. In doing so, we generate a series of testable propositions. We suggest that although the strategic behavior of Chinese Family Firms will differ significantly from those of classic Western MNEs, they are nonetheless amenable to interpretation according to Dunning's analytical constructs of ownership (O), internalization (I) and locational (L) advantages. More specifically, we find that like the classic Western MNE, the Chinese Family Firm can be understood as a viable mechanism for capitalizing on particular configurations of OLI advantages in international markets.

Details

The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Gordon Chi Kai Cheung and Edmund Terence Gomez

This paper aims to examine the UK’s small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) policies under Margaret Thatcher’s era in the 1980s, with a view to understand the success…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the UK’s small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) policies under Margaret Thatcher’s era in the 1980s, with a view to understand the success stories, historical development and the structures of Chinese family business through a case study of See Woo Holdings Ltd.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors have achieved the objective on the study of the SMEs policies under Margaret Thatcher through critical evaluation of the historical literatures, books, journals and newspapers. The study on overseas Chinese business and the case of See Woo Holdings Ltd. is mainly through the research of the Chinese overseas in the UK and Southeast Asia, and the companies report from the Companies House in the UK. The authors have used the latest 2011 UK Census statistics and academic reports to locate the most current demographic changes and Chinese business characteristics in the UK and the Northeast of England.

Findings

First, the UK’s SMEs policies under Margaret Thatcher were quite receptive towards the ethnic business. Second, the case of See Woo Holdings Ltd. indicates that family business networks are still one of the characteristics of Chinese business. Finally, the broader UK’s SMEs policies play an important role in this case study.

Originality/value

The authors provide a tentative linkage between the UK’s SMEs policies under Margaret Thatcher and Chinese family business. In addition, the case study of See Woo Holdings Ltd. improves the current understanding of Chinese family business with a clearer picture about their structure, practice, characteristics and development.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 20 July 2012

Amelia Sáiz López

Purpose – The chapter analyzes the conciliation strategies of the Chinese business families in Spain.Methodology – The data was gathered as part of a major fieldwork…

Abstract

Purpose – The chapter analyzes the conciliation strategies of the Chinese business families in Spain.

Methodology – The data was gathered as part of a major fieldwork project that included in-depth interviews and participant observation.

Findings – The research reveals a kind of transnational motherhood, which is invisible in the academic field. The strategy for work-family balance of the Chinese in Spain situates the mothers primarily in their productive dimension. Management of the work-family balance (the productive and reproductive work) depends on the phase of the family business path. Chinese families enact two different strategies for balancing work-family life: “transnationalized” reproduction and “externalized” reproduction. In both strategies, Chinese women do not engage in intensive motherhood, but at the same time they do remain highly involved in the home. The analysis of the productive-reproductive continuum shows the complexity of the gender relationships within the Chinese family enterprise.

Theoretical implications – Fieldwork data discloses a dynamic social relationship and suggest a revision of the theoretical assumptions used to explain the links among gender, work, and family in transnational space.

Practical implications – As global immigration continues to grow, adjustments and flexibility will be required of all parties. Immigrant families will have to contend with family reunification policies that vary from nation to nation. Because immigrant family dynamics can be culture-specific, receiving nations will require flexible policies in housing, education, and other sectors.

Details

Social Production and Reproduction at the Interface of Public and Private Spheres
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-875-5

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Fan Yu, Pingtian Wang, Yun Bai and Dandan Li

According to the real environment of China, the authors collect micro data about Chinese family firms (FFs) to explain why some Chinese FFs still tend to introduce…

Abstract

Purpose

According to the real environment of China, the authors collect micro data about Chinese family firms (FFs) to explain why some Chinese FFs still tend to introduce external managers though they have to face governance conflict between family-based managers and external managers.

Design/methodology/approach

This study analyzes the effect of governance conflict between family-based managers and external managers on firm performance by using ordinary least square test, which is also used to test which factor has influence on governance conflict’s profit promotion effect.

Findings

This study finds that governance conflict significantly improves firm performance (profit promotion effect). The governance conflict caused by the introduction of external managers in Chinese FFs can significantly improve a firm’s performance by raising its management efficiency and capital investment.

Research limitations/implications

The governance conflict of the family business needs to be further refined in following research. Besides, this study is only based on the empirical study of cross-section data.

Originality/value

Different from the existing related research is mainly based on the sample data of listed family enterprises, the China employer-employee matched survey data includes a large number of small and medium-sized FFs, and has obtained the actual situation of how many of the middle and senior managers are external not family members.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 June 2020

Joseph Kie Kuong Tang and Wan Sabri Hussin

This research study focusses on the succession challenges in small-medium outboard marine businesses of Malaysian Chinese family ownership. The founder-owners face…

Abstract

Purpose

This research study focusses on the succession challenges in small-medium outboard marine businesses of Malaysian Chinese family ownership. The founder-owners face challenges in convincing the next-generation members to establish their careers within the family business and to ensure successions are in place to safeguard the family's wealth. A gap exists in the research literatures concerning such family business owners; and their experiences would provide valuable information to other Malaysian Chinese family businesses planning to start the succession journey.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory case study methodology to research five Malaysian Chinese family businesses cases in Klang Valley, Selangor, Malaysia, is used in this study. The primary qualitative data were obtained through in-depth, semi-structured interviews and observations. The research data lead to the identification of the following themes: generational change affects the survival of small-medium Malaysian Chinese family-owned businesses; the founder-owners' intention and desire for business to pass to the next generation give rise to the imperative of succession; the founder-owners' motive and goals, family context and the business nature would determine a large part to how the succession plans are carried out and the upbringing, expectation and obligations would determine how the next generations of children would view the prospect of taking over the family business. From this, a succession model that detailed an inclusive approach to succession planning process between the two generations is established.

Research limitations/implications

A small purposive sample is included, and it is recommended that a larger and more diverse sample be collected in future studies. This study follows a nuclear family structure of parents and children. If more Chinese family businesses are selected based on a wider set of family members such as uncles and cousins, the findings may differ.

Social implications

This research study could also facilitate other Malaysian family businesses to rethink and refocus on the importance of undertaking an inclusive approach to succession planning and also help potential next-generation successors in understanding and working towards attaining the qualities that family firms look for in future leaders.

Originality/value

The researcher summarizes the study findings into a management succession model. An inclusive succession approach is needed to overcome these challenges and would enable sustainability, continuity and longevity of the family business. This would help the family business to understand that succession is not a single event but a process that needs to be planned together with the next-generation family members over a certain period of time.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

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