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Publication date: 31 March 2015

Min Zhou and Hong Liu

The study aims to examine the causes of the divergent patterns of contemporary transnational engagement with China among new Chinese immigrants and the effect of…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to examine the causes of the divergent patterns of contemporary transnational engagement with China among new Chinese immigrants and the effect of transnational entrepreneurship on migrants’ integration into their host societies.

Methodology/approach

It is based on a multi-sited ethnographic study that contains interviews, participant observations, and analysis of relevant event coverage and commentaries by the media, which were conducted between 2008 and 2013 in Singapore, the United States, and China.

Findings

The study finds that different migration histories, structural circumstances in both sending and receiving societies, and locations in the transnational social field give rise to divergent patterns of economic transnationalism, and that the rise of China has opened up new avenues for transnational entrepreneurship, which has not only benefited hometown development in China but also created economic opportunities for Chinese immigrants, leading to desirable mobility outcomes. In particular, transnational entrepreneurship has promoted deeper localization rather than deterritorialization and contributed to strengthening the economic base of the existing ethnic enclave, which in turn offers an effective alternative path for migrants’ integration in their host societies.

Research limitations

The study is exploratory in nature. As with all ethnographic studies, its generalizability is limited.

Social implications

The study suggests that, when transnational entrepreneurship is linked to the existing ethnic social structure in which a particular identity is formed, the effect on the group becomes highly significant. The comparative approach of the study can help unveil different dynamics, processes, and consequences of transnationalism and complex factors behind variations on diasporic development and immigrant integration.

Originality/Value

Looking at entrepreneurship beyond nation-state boundaries and beyond the economic gains of individual migrants.

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2011

Xiuzhai Zhao

The purpose of this paper is to find out the causes of Chinese graduate entrepreneurship dilemma (both the Chinese graduate entrepreneurship rate and the Chinese

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to find out the causes of Chinese graduate entrepreneurship dilemma (both the Chinese graduate entrepreneurship rate and the Chinese graduates' entrepreneurship low success rate) and then to propose some suggestions to the dilemma.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is conducted on the basis of 20 graduate entrepreneurship cases to summarize the necessary qualifications for graduates to start new businesses and then uses Global Entrepreneurship Monitor's (GEM) theory of entrepreneurial climate to analyze the entrepreneurial climate faced by Chinese graduates.

Findings

This paper points out the internal and external causes of Chinese graduate entrepreneurship dilemma: the internal one is that most graduates do not have the qualifications for entrepreneurship; the external one is that the present entrepreneurial climate in China is poor, resulting in difficulties for Chinese graduates to start new ventures.

Practical implications

The paper proposes the following countermeasures to help Chinese graduates get out of the entrepreneurship dilemma: undergraduates actively participating in social practice activities, establishing and improving the entrepreneurship education system, perfecting government policies and creating a strong entrepreneurial culture, respectively.

Originality/value

Nowadays, there is much research into the causes of the Chinese graduate entrepreneurship dilemma from various viewpoints. However, an analysis of the causes using GEMs theory of entrepreneurial climate is rare. This paper analyzes the problem from this aspect.

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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2019

Tariq H. Malik and Chunhui Huo

This paper aims to assess the comparative position of the national innovation system of Chinese state entrepreneurship versus liberal market entrepreneurship. Based on the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess the comparative position of the national innovation system of Chinese state entrepreneurship versus liberal market entrepreneurship. Based on the comparative institutional framework, it asks whether Chinese state entrepreneurship has a comparative disadvantage because of its incoherent institutions in liberal or coordinated economies. Hence, does the Chinese institutional system of innovation lag behind that of US or liberal countries of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) economies in the transformation of national science into economic products measured as high-technology exports?

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses panel data analysis based on 29 OECD economies and the Chinese economy over 23 years. Regarding national science productivity (explorative capabilities), it includes published and patented science streams; regarding technological transformation (exploitative capabilities), it measures the percentage of high-technology exports in gross domestic product (GDP). The interactions between the types of entrepreneurship and national science institutions serve as predictors in the design.

Findings

The results show that Chinese state entrepreneurship has a comparative advantage over liberal economies in published science. However, Chinese state entrepreneurship has a comparative disadvantage compared to liberal entrepreneurship in patent science. Regarding the dyadic level of comparability between the national economies, there are mixed results in the transformation of national science.

Research limitations/implications

This study supports the three following theoretical points: national institutions differ regardless of the pressure of convergence through globalization; national science contingencies influence different paths of the transformation of national science to technology; and mixed economies, such as state entrepreneurship, can achieve high performance without fully conforming to liberal markets.

Practical implications

This study emphasizes institutional mechanisms for future research to support the innovation of incoherent institutions and suggests the benefit of cross-pollination of senior managers between state and private organizations for a defined duration.

Originality/value

Theoretically, this research combines an interdisciplinary and interinstitutional level of analysis, and in so doing, it deals with the transformation of national science in scientific publications and patents in the vertical value chain. Empirically, this study links the national published and patented science with the national economic artifacts in high-technology sectors. This novel approach to assess the national and discipline-level interaction sets a context for the future research in other settings. It also informs policy decisions regarding the growth of science, innovation and development.

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2011

Claudio Petti and Shujun Zhang

This study seeks to address the issue of the factors influencing Chinese enterprises technological entrepreneurship capabilities. This study is particularly relevant in…

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to address the issue of the factors influencing Chinese enterprises technological entrepreneurship capabilities. This study is particularly relevant in light of the driving role given to enterprises in the process of transforming China into an innovation‐oriented nation and leading science power.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on a broad literature review, covering various theoretical fields in International as well as Chinese management literature, to develop an integrated research framework. Relying on a multi‐disciplinary and multi‐level approach, the framework highlights a number of internal processes and external network attributes, their interactions and moderating relationships as related to their impact on Chinese enterprises technological entrepreneurship capabilities and their contributions to business performance.

Findings

The paper offers an overview of the factors that affect technological entrepreneurship capabilities, with particular reference to Chinese enterprises. Also, the study highlights some understudied issues and points to a number of research directions of specific relevance for the Chinese context. In this aim, a number of theoretical propositions have been identified.

Originality/value

The paper provides an integrated multi‐disciplinary and multi‐level research framework that organizes the body of knowledge, scattered in different literature and contexts, in a state‐of‐the‐art piece of the research into technology entrepreneurship capabilities, as well as to identify more specific research questions, model, testable hypothesis and related studies that build on and add value to previous research.

Details

Journal of Technology Management in China, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8779

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Andrea Ganzaroli and Ivan De Noni

This paper aims to investigate the rise of a Chinese fashion cluster in Lombardy.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the rise of a Chinese fashion cluster in Lombardy.

Design/methodology/approach

Three approaches and descending levels of analysis are integrated: a quantitative analysis based on demographic data to highlight the evolution of the regional distribution of the Chinese community and Chinese entrepreneurship in Lombardy; a literature review to reconstruct the historical development of Chinatown in Milan; and few in-depth interviews and a survey to represent how the Chinese living in Chinatown perceive the changing role of the enclave.

Findings

The Chinese in Lombardy are rising as a regional ethnic fashion cluster. This cluster is rising out of three major drivers: ethnic social capital as a source of community-based entrepreneurship; the crisis of traditional industrial districts in the 1990s as a trigger opportunity; and the trans-regionalization of the fashion industry as a main driver of its current development. The rise of this cluster is bottom-up.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are based on a single case study. There are evidences showing that the Chinese are rising as regional and/or inter-regional clusters in other institutional settings. However, this study may benefit from comparisons with other institutional and national contexts.

Practical implications

Chinese entrepreneurship may foster regional growth as a complementary source of cultural variety, internationalization and multi-regional co-specialization.

Social implications

Entrepreneurship may foster social cohesion and collaboration.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to existing literature by proposing a would-be theory of the evolution of regional ethnic clusters.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Jun Li and Harry Matlay

This paper aims to focus on three main strands of research relating to entrepreneurship in China: the role of local governments in the development of entrepreneurial…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on three main strands of research relating to entrepreneurship in China: the role of local governments in the development of entrepreneurial activities in twon and village‐based enterprises (TVEs); institutional environments and strategic responses of private firms; and culture and its impact upon entrepreneurship. It aims to suggest a tentative research agenda and offer directions for further research.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper employs a critical review approach to research on entrepreneurship and small business development in China.

Findings

It is suggested that the combination of local entrepreneurial state theory with an analysis of the institutional environment at the macro level offers plausible explanations on the causes, context and extent of Chinese entrepreneurship development during the past two decades. The paper argues that existing theories need to be revised on a continuous basis, as ongoing reforms and developments redefine relationships between stakeholders and the wider economic environment in China.

Originality/value

The paper reviews progress to date and offers suggestions for further research. It posits that topics of future interest could include the changing relationship between stakeholders in both rural and urban areas, the impact of increasingly institutionalised environments on entrepreneurship and small business development, and longitudinal analyses of emerging models of entrepreneurial behaviour and growth.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2018

E. Mine Cinar, Yu Du and Tyler Hienkel

The purpose of this paper is to compare influential factors of entrepreneurial activities over time in China and to compare China with other selected countries. The data…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare influential factors of entrepreneurial activities over time in China and to compare China with other selected countries. The data are collected from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). The method used is decision trees and chi-square automatic interaction detector (CHAID) analysis, which isolates important factors and examines entrepreneurship predictor importance.

Design/methodology/approach

The method used is decision trees and CHAID analysis which isolate important factors and examine entrepreneurship predictor importance. The original contribution of this paper is that this is the first time where artificial decision trees are applied to data to isolate factors that influence business startups and used across countries for comparative purposes. It is also the first application of this model to Chinese GEM. CHAID trees and predictor importance show the value of motivations of people who have already started businesses and shed light on how public policy can be influential in promoting entrepreneurship.

Findings

Results indicate that solid knowledge and skills of how to start a business and knowing someone who has already started a business are the most important factors in China and in most of the selected countries. Fear of failure is becoming less important for Chinese entrepreneurs over the years from 2003 to 2012. Results show that countries, including China, have to enhance skill and knowledge education if they want to promote small business entrepreneurship as a policy. The findings support human capital theory.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of this study are due to using aggregated data from GEM surveys, which do not allow the authors to examine individual or household behavior. The authors do not know the variance and the distribution of responses to the questions asked and the locations in which the surveys were conducted. Another limitation is that GEM data do not report regional variations which can be modeled. For future work, the authors suggest more detailed data availability which will lead to isolating entrepreneurial problems and highlighting relevant attitudes important to entrepreneurs.

Practical implications

Better data collection is needed at household and regional levels to understand business starts and to promote entrepreneurship.

Social implications

Social implication of this research is to find out effective ways to increase entrepreneurial activities, therefore creating job opportunities and boosting economic growth. Educational programs will also decrease disparity of opportunity and incomes between different geographical regions in the country. The original contribution of this paper is that this is the first time artificial decision trees are applied to data to isolate factors that influence business startups across countries.

Originality/value

The original contribution of this paper is that this is the first time where artificial decision trees are applied to data to isolate factors that influence business startups and used across countries for comparative purposes. It is also the first application of this model to Chinese GEM. CHAID trees and predictor importance show the value of motivations of people who have already started businesses and shed light on how public policy can be influential in promoting entrepreneurship. This research modeled the breakdown of reasons people would start a business by using GEM data surveys.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2005

Zhongming Wang and Zhi Zang

Strategic human resource management (SHRM) is seen as crucial for innovation and entrepreneurship in China. An empirical research was carried out to investigate main…

Abstract

Purpose

Strategic human resource management (SHRM) is seen as crucial for innovation and entrepreneurship in China. An empirical research was carried out to investigate main dimensions of the model of human resources management (HRM), practices and their effects on organisational performance in relation to innovation and entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

The research has two parts. The first part is a field survey on human resource management practices and its main dimensions. The study was conducted in the Chinese local companies and joint ventures across different partnerships. The second part is an in‐depth case‐set analysis of Chinese entrepreneurship models from a strategic HRM perspective.

Findings

The results showed that both functional and strategic dimensions of HRM could be identified which had differential effects upon organisational performance and that the most successful local entrepreneurial firms were among the collective‐based and globally‐oriented ones.

Originality/value

This study demonstrated that the fit between strategic HRM practices, innovation strategy and entrepreneurship model was significantly contributed to entrepreneurial performance. A regional comparative model of SHRM and entrepreneurship was proposed for sustainable business developments and organisational change.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2002

Jock Collins

Recounts the history of the Chinese Diaspora in Australia, which dates back to the Gold Rush of the 1850s. In the past three decades, following the end of the white…

Abstract

Recounts the history of the Chinese Diaspora in Australia, which dates back to the Gold Rush of the 1850s. In the past three decades, following the end of the white Australia policy, many ethnic Chinese immigrants have immigrated to Australia. Although there are only 300,000 people of Chinese ancestry living in Australia, Chinese immigration is a critical chapter of Australia’s immigration experience. Chinese entrepreneurs have played a major role in the history of the Chinese in Australia. Explores the experience of Chinese entrepreneurs in Australia from the earliest days till the present and reviews historical accounts of Chinese entrepreneurs in Australia, before presenting the results of recent research. Argues that it is necessary to investigate how ethnicity, gender and class have intersected to shape changing patterns of Chinese entrepreneurship in the Australian Chinese Diaspora. Suggests also that the dynamics of Chinese immigration and Chinese entrepreneurship in Australia have been shaped by the changing dynamics of globalisation, the state and the racialisation of Chinese immigrants in the Australian labour market and society as a whole.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 8 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 May 2013

Ye‐Sho Chen, Edward Watson, Edgard Cornacchione and Renato Ferreira Leitão Azevedo

There is an increased research interest in the recent phenomenon of Chinese small and medium‐sized businesses (SMEs) going abroad. The paper aims to enrich the literature…

Abstract

Purpose

There is an increased research interest in the recent phenomenon of Chinese small and medium‐sized businesses (SMEs) going abroad. The paper aims to enrich the literature by proposing a “Flying High, Landing Soft” curriculum helping Chinese SMEs going abroad. This innovative entrepreneurial curriculum is based on the Soft Landings program originally developed by the National Business Incubation Association. The objective of the curriculum is to provide a platform for students at various levels (undergraduate, graduate, and executive education) and business communities to engage in China‐USA‐Brazil entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

The “Flying High, Landing Soft” curriculum, consisting of three core elements (resources and networks; five steps process of coaching; cultivating storytellers), is grounded in the theories of input‐process‐output model of strategic entrepreneurship and docility‐based distributed cognition.

Findings

A “Flying High, Landing Soft” curriculum was developed to help the Chinese SMEs to invest in USA and Brazil. The curriculum is designed to take advantage of resources from the participating entities with the impact of enriching our students' educational experience and enabling business communities to engage in global business opportunities. The “Flying High, Landing Soft” curriculum is a win‐win program for everyone involved.

Practical implications

The curriculum is based on the Soft Landings International Incubator Designation program originally developed by the National Business Incubation Association. Since there is a need for the soft landings companies to go global, there is also a need for students to go global; the “Flying High, Landing Soft” curriculum is a merge of these two concepts.

Originality/value

The authors have developed a curriculum that links China‐USA‐Brazil entrepreneurs, investors, students and institutions to collaborate in order to help individuals to exploit market opportunities as well as use the process to educate students. This form of entrepreneurship curriculum is a contribution to our understanding about entrepreneurship, especially international entrepreneurship of SMEs.

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