Search results

1 – 10 of over 22000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Michel Laroche, Rong Li, Marie-Odile Richard and Muxin Shao

This study aims to investigate how consumers respond to global brands adapting to local elements. Specifically, this study identified three factors (i.e., cultural…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate how consumers respond to global brands adapting to local elements. Specifically, this study identified three factors (i.e., cultural compatibility, cultural elements authenticity and cultural pride) affecting the purchase intentions (PIs) toward global brands using Chinese elements among Chinese consumers in China and Chinese immigrants in North America. Another aim is to examine the moderating role of acculturation in the relationship between cultural pride and PIs among Chinese immigrants.

Design/methodology/approach

Three studies were conducted to test the hypotheses in China and North America. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to confirm the factor structure. Hierarchical regression was used to test the main effects and moderated regression analysis was used to test the moderation effect.

Findings

Results show that cultural compatibility, cultural elements authenticity (CEA) and cultural pride positively affect the PIs toward global brands with Chinese elements for both Chinese consumers and Chinese immigrants. Further, among Chinese immigrants, acculturation moderates the relationship between cultural pride and PIs.

Originality/value

This study explored the factors influencing the PIs toward global brands using Chinese elements, filling a research gap. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to examine how perceived CEA affects consumers’ PIs toward global brands with Chinese elements. Further, the findings have implications for global brands that want to target Chinese consumers and Chinese immigrants in overseas markets.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Jiaxun He and Cheng Lu Wang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of incorporating Chinese elements in global brands on consumer purchase likelihood.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of incorporating Chinese elements in global brands on consumer purchase likelihood.

Design/methodology/approach

Six global brand products from three categories that utilized Chinese elements are used to test hypotheses. The Total Effect Moderation Model is used to analyze by combining moderation and mediation under a general analytical framework.

Findings

The results show that cultural compatibility has direct positive effect, in addition to an indirect effect (through local iconness) on purchase likelihood. Meanwhile, consumer cultural identity is found to moderate the impact of brand local iconness on purchase likelihood.

Practical implications

Evaluation and improvement of cultural compatibility in a global brand that incorporates Chinese elements is recommended for multinational marketers entering Chinese consumer markets. Meanwhile, marketers should pay attention to consumer cultural identity in the market segmentation process.

Originality/value

This paper takes a unique perspective to investigate whether and how global brands can succeed when adding local cultural elements to the product design, packaging and promotion in emerging markets like China.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Tony Yan and Michael R. Hyman

Studies on cross-culture marketing often focus on either localization or globalization strategies. Based on data from pre-communist China (1912–1949), product…

Abstract

Purpose

Studies on cross-culture marketing often focus on either localization or globalization strategies. Based on data from pre-communist China (1912–1949), product hybridization – defined as a process or strategy that generates symbols, designs, behaviors and cultural identities that blend local and global elements – emerges as a popular intermediate strategy worthy of further inquiry. After examining the mechanisms and processes underlying this strategy, a schema for classifying product hybridization strategies is developed and illustrated. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Critical historical research method is applied to historical data and historical “traces” from pre-communist China’s corporate documents, memoirs, posters, advertisements, newspapers and secondhand sources.

Findings

Strategic interactions between domestic and foreign companies in pre-communist China fostered products and a city (Shanghai) containing Chinese and non-Chinese elements. Informed by historical traces and data from pre-communist China (1912-1949), a 2 × 2 classification schema relating company type (i.e. foreign or domestic) to values spectrum endpoint (i.e. domestic vs foreign) was formulated. This schema reflects the value of communication, negotiation and cultural (inter)penetration that accompanies cross-culture product flows.

Research limitations/implications

Cross-culture marketing strategies meant to help companies satisfy diverse marketplace interests can induce a mélange of product design elements. Because product hybridization reflects reciprocity between domestic and foreign companies that embodies multiple interests and contrasting interpretations of product meanings, researchers should examine globalization and localization synergistically.

Practical implications

Strategies adopted by domestic and foreign companies in pre-communist China (1912–1949) can help contemporary companies design effective cross-culture marketing strategies in a global marketplace infused with competing meanings and interests.

Originality/value

Examining historical strategies adopted in pre-communist China (1912–1949) can inform contemporary marketers’ intuitions. Understanding product hybridization in global marketplaces can improve marketing efficiency.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Stella Lai Man So and Mark W. Speece

Relationship marketing is widely regarded as effective in developing competitive advantage. But views on exactly what activities constitute relationship marketing may…

Abstract

Relationship marketing is widely regarded as effective in developing competitive advantage. But views on exactly what activities constitute relationship marketing may differ in various cultural settings. In‐depth interviews with account managers in commercial banks in Hong Kong yielded a list of activities considered critical to building relationships. In a following survey, account managers in Asian banks rated the importance of the various social activities higher than did account managers in Western banks, although all respondents were ethnic Chinese. The Western banks rated business activities more important than did the Asian banks. Factor analysis shows that managers in Western banks perceive dimensions of business activities consistent with recent thinking about relationship marketing. Respondents in the Asian banks do not view social activities and business activities to be distinct, nor do they distinguish strongly differentiated dimensions of business activity elements.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 18 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Chunyan Nie and Tao Wang

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of the interpretation strategy of cultural mixing on consumers’ evaluations of global brands that incorporate local…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of the interpretation strategy of cultural mixing on consumers’ evaluations of global brands that incorporate local cultural elements. Specifically, this paper examines whether a property interpretation and a relational interpretation have different influences on consumers’ evaluations of global brands that incorporate local cultural elements.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experiments were conducted as part of this research. Experiment 1 adopted a two (interpretation strategy: property interpretation vs relational interpretation) single-factor between-subjects design. Experiment 2 adopted a 2 (interpretation strategy: property interpretation vs relational interpretation) × 2 (polyculturalist beliefs: high vs low) between-subjects design. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and PROCESS 213.

Findings

A property interpretation (emphasizing that some features of a global brand transfer to local cultural elements) leads to a less favorable evaluation of global brands that incorporate local cultural elements than a relational interpretation (emphasizing a relation between global brands and local cultural elements). This effect is fully mediated by perceived cultural intrusion, and it exists only when consumers have a low level of polyculturalist beliefs.

Originality/value

This paper reveals that the phenomenon of cultural mixing occurs when global brands incorporate local cultural elements. In addition, the way that consumers perceive the relationship between global brands and local cultural elements will determine their reactions to global brands that incorporate local cultural elements.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Doreen D. Wu

This paper aims to present the issue of glocalization in transnational advertising and to investigate various patterns of global‐local fusion in the discursive…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the issue of glocalization in transnational advertising and to investigate various patterns of global‐local fusion in the discursive construction of automobile advertisements in People's Republic of China.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 110 web ads is collected between 2004 and 2005, representing product branding from the local enterprises, the joint‐venture enterprises, and the foreign enterprises in the automobile industry in People's Republic of China. A tripartite framework is developed to examine the patterns of global‐local fusion in the ads along three dimensions: value appeals, language appeals, and visual appeals.

Findings

The paper finds that the global appeals tend to be used more frequently in the value dimension while the local appeals tend to be used more frequently in the language dimension, while there is not much difference in the frequency of distribution in the global versus the local appeals in the visual dimension. Furthermore, a large number of the multinational advertisers tend to hybridize both the global and the local elements and there are three possible patterns as representing the scenarios of the global and local fusion in the discourse of Chinese advertising: weak globalization but strong localization, strong globalization but weak localization, and a balanced correspondence between the global and local elements.

Originality/value

The paper has developed a tripartite framework for systematically examining the phenomenon of global‐local hybridity in the discourse of Chinese advertising and calls for attention to the process as well as products of glocalization in the other forms of transnational corporate practice.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Ülle Pihlak and Ruth Alas

The purpose of this paper is to examine how cultural differences influence change management in Indian, Chinese and Estonian organisations. The paper focuses mainly on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how cultural differences influence change management in Indian, Chinese and Estonian organisations. The paper focuses mainly on the resistance to change and contributes to management research and management practices in multinational companies by improving the understanding of cultural influences on organisational change management.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors interviewed 177 business consultants and managers in India, China and Estonia who had participated in change management projects. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze the impact of national culture to change management.

Findings

The cause of resistance was found to be mainly fear, in Indian and Estonian organisations, but in Chinese organizations it was the inertia. Increased stress was the most often experienced negative factor during change management projects in all three countries. Stress was caused mainly by leadership problems in India and by increased workload in Estonia. To overcome the resistance, communication was used in India and education together with communication both in Estonia and in China most often. Still, the content of these activities was different.

Research limitations/implications

The interviewees had different relations to the organisations they described and the size of organizations was different.

Practical implications

The paper's findings will help managers of multinational companies to understand the causes of resistance to change in different countries and plan the methods to overcome such resistance.

Originality/value

Papers such as this, about the effect of culture on change management, are increasingly important due to rapid globalization.

Details

Journal of Indian Business Research, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4195

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Junju Li and Ying (Tracy) Lu

With the worldwide growth of the Chinese tourism market, a number of studies have emerged, that attempt to understand the phenomenon, including the influence of Chinese

Abstract

Purpose

With the worldwide growth of the Chinese tourism market, a number of studies have emerged, that attempt to understand the phenomenon, including the influence of Chinese culture on Chinese tourist behavior. This research aims to answer four questions: How has Chinese culture been adopted in tourism literature? What is the current state of tourism research on Chinese culture? What are the similarities, differences and research gaps between international and Chinese studies in this area of investigation? What are the directions that future tourism research will take?

Design/methodology/approach

The articles for this systematic review were published in major international hospitality and tourism journals and Chinese journals over a period of 20 years (1993-2012). A meta-review was carried out on 80 Chinese and English tourism literature dating from 1993 to 2012.

Findings

This review showed that Chinese culture has been fragmentally operationalized due to underdeveloped Chinese cultural theories in tourism, independent and unrelated extant cultural systems and perspectives and lack of empirical testing for theory development. Two major theoretical systems of Chinese culture in tourist research were revealed in this review: cross-cultural theory and traditional Chinese cultural framework. The current state of tourism research on Chinese culture was also analyzed. The similarities, differences and research gaps were identified between international and Chinese studies on this inquiry. Implications for future tourism research in this area were suggested.

Research limitations/implications

Unveiling the evolving research progress of a single culture helps to provide a deeper insight into how culture was used to analyze the behavior of individual tourist markets, and hence to better understand a particular tourist market.

Originality/value

This research has synthesized a wide range of literature to unveil the extant understanding of Chinese culture as reflected in Chinese tourists and outline the ways forward in this area of investigation.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 71 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Marilyn Delong, Juanjuan Wu and Mingxin Bao

The objective was to provide research‐based insights from two groups of respondents as to their perceptions, preferences and desire to purchase Chinese – influenced Western dress.

Abstract

Purpose

The objective was to provide research‐based insights from two groups of respondents as to their perceptions, preferences and desire to purchase Chinese – influenced Western dress.

Design/methodology/approach

Ten images of models in designer clothing were selected that varied in degree of Chinese influence. College students from a US and a Chinese university, numbering 55 and 56 respectively, were asked to respond by ranking each image to discern their perceptions of ethnic influence and their preferences for and desire to purchase each of the ten images. Responses were compared and analyzed.

Findings

A conclusion based upon analysis of responses was that degree of Chinese influence was less critical than the aesthetic character of the form itself. Some disagreement occurred in respondent's highest ranked preferences. Regarding preference and desire to purchase, US respondents ranked them similarly, while Chinese students ranked them differently.

Research limitations/implications

The sample was confined to College students with similar majors in the two countries. Limiting the sample in this way offered control in age and interest, but also limited application of results.

Practical implications

This study addressed the perceptions, preferences and purchasing desires for dress with Chinese influence in a cross cultural perspective. Respondents in this study preferred effective design of the whole image and not simply a borrowing of disparate ethnic attributes.

Originality/value

Results provide a managerial guide for ethnic fashion marketers.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Nan Cui, Peng Xie, Yiran Jiang and Lan Xu

The purpose of the current study is to examine how and when home country identity salience of emerging market companies affects their overseas initial public offering…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the current study is to examine how and when home country identity salience of emerging market companies affects their overseas initial public offering (IPO) performance

Design/methodology/approach

By using secondary data from multiple sources, this study empirically tests the proposed research framework in the context of Chinese companies' overseas IPO activities in the US stock markets.

Findings

The results demonstrate that home country identity salience positively affects overseas IPO performance, and thus can be recognized as the asset of foreignness. Cultural specification positively moderates the effect of home country identity salience on overseas IPO performance. Market internationalization also plays an important moderating role in the relationship between home country identity salience and overseas IPO performance.

Originality/value

The current study identifies a new factor, that is, home country identity salience, that can mitigate the liability of foreignness for emerging market companies in their overseas IPO activities. The study also documents the positive cultural impacts on overseas investors in a financial and international context.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 22000