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Article
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Yanhui Pang

This study aims to selects a teacher training program located in China’s rural area and focus on its preservice teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education in China…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to selects a teacher training program located in China’s rural area and focus on its preservice teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education in China and their expectations of teacher training programs.

Design/methodology/approach

The selected teacher training program is in School of Education of a comprehensive university, located in a small town in Northeast China. Five preservice teachers in the Department of Teacher Education were interviewed. The interviewees were randomly selected among those who have already gained at least 60 credits of coursework prior to the interview. Each interview lasted for approximately 0.5 h. Interview notes were summarized and coded using Braun and Clarke’s (2006) six-step approach. In addition to interview data, other data sources were used, such as classroom observation and review of curriculum and program requirement.

Findings

Although the selected teacher preparation program started offering some selective special education courses to preservice teachers, there are limited number of offerings and a lack of field placement in inclusive settings, and stereotypical opinions towards disabilities still exist as a roadblock for choosing special education teacher profession.

Research limitations/implications

The current study only focuses on one rural teacher training institution and report preservice teachers’ opinions toward teacher education curriculum, factors that lead to their decision in the teacher education major and their vision towards inclusion in China. Recommendations are provided to increase public awareness of disability, and create more field based experience in inclusive settings for preservice teachers. However, the result may not be generalized to reflect preservice teachers of teacher training institutions located in developed areas where there are rich opportunities for field experience in inclusive setting or special education programs, and who offer more extensive special education courses.

Practical implications

It is recommended that teacher preparation program modify curriculum and offer more special education courses, as well as develop connections with local special education schools and inclusive programs, thus creating more field based opportunities for preservice teachers to work with children with disabilities.

Originality/value

There are limited studies on rural preservice teachers’ attitudes towards being a special education teacher and how the teacher training programs prepare them to become a special education teacher. The current study fills the gap and conduct an interview study of preservice teachers’ from a rural teacher training programs perceptions of China’s special education, how they choose the program of study that prepare them to become a special education teacher, and their rating of the teacher preparation program.

Details

Journal for Multicultural Education, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-535X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 16 September 2014

Mian Wang and Yajing Feng

Special education in China has lagged behind regular education for many years, however, the past few decades, the government has made considerable efforts to develop and…

Abstract

Special education in China has lagged behind regular education for many years, however, the past few decades, the government has made considerable efforts to develop and improve the special education system. While the citizens of China have had a generic moral interest in disability since ancient times, the development of special education schools did not occur until American and European missionaries started schools for the visually and hearing impaired in the 19th century. The next major influence in the development of the special education system occurred with China’s Cultural Revolution in 1978. Interestingly, there is not any exclusive legislation on special education but in the 1980s, the government started Learning in Regular Classrooms (LRC), which is China’s version of inclusion. LRC has progressed rapidly the past two decades; however, the quality of instruction is low due to a lack of specialists, a shortage of personnel, inadequate funding, and limited technology as well as other barriers that are delineated in the chapter. The chapter emphasizes the government’s recent efforts in in-service teacher training, the preparation of preservice teachers, working with families, developing community rehabilitation training programs, and implementing evidence-based practices. Special education in China today is at a good place but it has quite a way from the ideal situation.

Details

Special Education International Perspectives: Practices Across the Globe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-096-4

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Article
Publication date: 9 December 2020

Xiao-Ling Song, Ya-Ge Jing and Kade'erya Akeba'erjiang

This study aims to empirically analyze the factors influencing digital financial inclusion in China.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to empirically analyze the factors influencing digital financial inclusion in China.

Design/methodology/approach

Using panel data from 31 provinces in China for the years 2011-2018, the study constructed spatial econometric models for regression analysis at the national and regional levels.

Findings

Economic development, government intervention, internet penetration and the development of the credit level significantly affected the development of digital financial inclusion in China. However, the specific influence of the various factors varied by province. Provinces with less-developed economies generally had weaker economic foundations and underdeveloped digital financial services, making it more difficult to fully achieve digital financial inclusion.

Practical implications

Relevant government policies should strengthen digital infrastructure and improve the organizational systems and services of digital finance to support the balanced development of digital financial services in China.

Originality/value

China’s e-commerce development has been at the global forefront for decades, which suggests digital financial inclusion is also well-placed for strong development in China. However, quantitative research on the digital financial inclusion index has remained insufficient in China and worldwide, with most research ignoring the status of different development levels in a different region. To address this gap in the literature, this study empirically researched the status, regional differences and causes associated with these differences that impact digital financial inclusion in China.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2020

Yanhui Pang

Recently with increased legislative support and evidence-based studies on the importance of education for children with disabilities in China, special education programs…

Abstract

Purpose

Recently with increased legislative support and evidence-based studies on the importance of education for children with disabilities in China, special education programs and intervention and rehabilitation services have received more and more attention. There are limited studies on special education programs for children with disabilities located in China’s rural areas. This paper aims to select one special education program in China’s northeast rural area with a special focus on its curriculum design, accommodative services and teacher qualifications. Recommendations were provided on how to modify the curriculum to meet each child’s special needs, increase social interaction among children, increase teacher qualifications and improve teacher family collaboration.

Design/methodology/approach

The participating program serves orphans and children with disabilities between 6 and 18 years old and provides them 9-year free education, along with free textbooks, uniforms, food and boarding. Currently, there are approximately 100 students and 40 teachers, one director and one nurse. The teacher/staff and student ratio is 1:3. Data were collected through classroom observation and interviews. Afterward, the interview data were transcribed. Data were analyzed following Braun and Clarke’s (2006) six-step approach. The researcher reviewed the collected data, then coded the data and reviewed, refined and revised the codes, and finally themes and sub-themes were identified with quotations that support each theme/sub-theme.

Findings

The identified themes are accommodations, education plan and curriculum and teacher qualifications. Accommodations include, but are not limited to, visual and hearing aids. National unity textbooks were adopted, along with national syllabus objectives, as a guideline for instruction and evaluation of child progress. Teachers also adjust curriculum-based students’ individual needs. All teachers hold an associate degree in special education, and those who teach specials hold a higher degree in the specialty area. Given that there is no speech language pathologist, physical therapist, or occupational therapist, teachers with rich working experiences in the related field serve as special professionals.

Research limitations/implications

The current research reports the program design, accommodations for children with disabilities, curriculum and syllabus, parent/guardian role and teacher qualifications in the selected school. Given that the current study focuses on only one school located in the rural area of China’s northeast, it may represent special education programs in rural China, but it is hard to be generalized to provide a big picture of China’s special education programs in more developed, metropolitan areas.

Practical implications

The selected school offers accommodative services to students with disabilities; adjusts its curriculum to make it developmentally appropriate; and offers educational, medical and rehabilitation services to promote student development to the maximum. The selected school should improve teacher quality, increase social interaction between children with and without disabilities, modify the curriculum to cater to individuals with different severities of disabilities and increase family professional collaboration.

Originality/value

There is limited study on special education programs for young children with disabilities in China’s rural area. The current study fills this gap and studies a special education school that offers services to children as young as six years old located in a small town in the northeast of China. The special focus of the study includes program curriculum, accommodations, rehabilitation and intervention services and teacher qualifications in this program.

Details

Journal for Multicultural Education, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-535X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2021

Yang Liu, Chunyu Liu and Mi Zhou

The development of digital inclusive finance appears to be able to solve the difficulty of traditional finance, which cannot completely cover agriculture and farmers and…

Abstract

Purpose

The development of digital inclusive finance appears to be able to solve the difficulty of traditional finance, which cannot completely cover agriculture and farmers and provides better financial services and products to Chinese farmers. Thus, it improves the farmers' enthusiasm for agricultural production. The purpose of this paper is to clarify whether this goal is indeed being achieved.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper theoretically analyzes the mechanism that influences the effect of digital inclusive finance on rural households' agricultural production decisions and conducts an empirical study based on a sample from the Chinese family database (CFD).

Findings

First, the development of digital financial inclusion in general can encourage rural households to reduce agricultural production. Second, the negative effect of digital inclusive finance on households' agricultural output is realized by widening the gap between the efficiency of non-agricultural economic activities and the efficiency of agricultural production. The wider the gap is, the lower the enthusiasm of households for agricultural production. Third, the mediating effect of “digital financial inclusion – difference in efficiency – agricultural output” has a significant negative effect on households with low agricultural production efficiency, but not households with high agricultural production efficiency. Digital inclusive finance has no significant effect on the difference in efficiency between the two economic activities of high-efficiency households, but a greater difference in efficiency between the two economic activities corresponds to higher enthusiasm of households for agricultural production.

Originality/value

To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to analyze the impact of digital financial inclusion on Chinese farmers' agricultural production. The findings of this study can provide policy-related insights to help local governments promote the development of digital finance in China's agricultural economy.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2019

Shuanping Dai and Markus Taube

This paper aims to explore the functionality of long tail markets (LTM), where the consumers cannot be reached or are ignored by the traditional mainstream businesses, in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the functionality of long tail markets (LTM), where the consumers cannot be reached or are ignored by the traditional mainstream businesses, in new products and business development.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the authors review two Chinese entrepreneurial practices in the Fintech sector and low-speed electric vehicles (LSEV) and describe their stylized facts; second, they explore a possible theoretical LTM framework to underscore these practices; third, they make a connection between LTM and existing business models and analyze its significance and practical implications in business, in particular, in developing economies.

Findings

The LTM business approach has helped Chinese companies in the Fintech sector and LSEVs gain global attention. The success factors of LTM for businesses are identifying a specific customer base, being aware of localization products and playing skillfully with regulations; the LTM approach has several overlaps with existing studies on niche products and base of the pyramid market.

Originality/value

Based on some emerging and attractive business practices in China, this paper offers a valuable attempt to theorize them as long tail phenomenon. The LTM thesis provides a potential framework to reference for similar methods elsewhere and may illuminate entrepreneurship to be explored in similar markets.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2021

Muhammad Umar and Muhammad Akhtar

This study aims to investigate the relationship between financial inclusion and risk-taking by Chinese banks.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the relationship between financial inclusion and risk-taking by Chinese banks.

Design/methodology/approach

It uses the panel data from Chinese banks ranging from 2011 to 2019 and applies system generalized method of moments to measure coefficients. To get in-depth understanding of the relationship between above-mentioned variables, the analysis for commercial, cooperative, listed, unlisted, small and large banks has been done. Financial inclusion index has been measured based on demographic and geographic aspects by using the principal component analysis, and bank risk-taking has been proxied by z-score.

Findings

The findings reveal an inverse relationship between financial inclusion and bank risk-taking which implies that an increase in financial inclusion results in lesser risk for the banks, i.e. diversification hypothesis applies. However, the results for unlisted and large banks show a different story where an increase in financial inclusion results in higher bank risk and vice versa.

Originality/value

The present study offers several valid and convincing implications for consumers, policymakers and banking sector regulators.

Details

China Finance Review International, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1398

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 July 2020

Duha Farouq Khmous and Mustafa Besim

This study aims to investigate how the Islamic banking share (percentage of total Islamic banking assets relative to total banking sector assets) and individual…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate how the Islamic banking share (percentage of total Islamic banking assets relative to total banking sector assets) and individual characteristics (gender, age, income and education) affect financial inclusion in 14 Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) countries with different income levels.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses data from the 2014 World Bank Global Findex database to analyze the impact of individual characteristics, Islamic banking share and countries’ developmental levels on financial inclusion and its barriers in MENA countries. The probit estimation method is used for estimations.

Findings

The findings indicate that financial inclusion, particularly in middle-income MENA countries, is lower than the global average. While being male, rich and older positively affects financial inclusion in these countries, education does not. Islamic banking practises also contribute to financial inclusion, especially for individuals with strong religious affiliations. The effect of Islamic banking on financial inclusion is found to be greater in middle-income MENA countries.

Practical implications

Islamic banking institutions could play a greater role in promoting financial inclusion in the MENA region by offering Sharia-compliant products that meet individuals’ needs, matching the specific requirements and status of each country with affordable costs and offering adequate information to customers. Governments should promote more Islamic banking and incentivise investments in technology, which helps expand financial inclusion.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine the influence of Islamic banking share and countries’ levels of development on financial inclusion in the MENA region.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2018

Fadi Hassan Shihadeh

This study aims to analyze the financial inclusion of individuals living in the Middle East, North African, Afghanistan and Pakistan (MENAP). It intends to show the…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze the financial inclusion of individuals living in the Middle East, North African, Afghanistan and Pakistan (MENAP). It intends to show the influence of these individuals’ characteristics on financial inclusion, using the World Bank Global Findex Database 2014 for 16 countries in the region.

Design/methodology/approach

A probit model is used to examine the marginal effect of financial inclusion of the characteristics of individuals living in the MENAP region. These characteristics include gender, age, income and education. Individual characteristics that are linked to the main financial-inclusion indicators include having a formal account and formal saving and borrowing. The barriers to having a formal account, alternative borrowing sources and motivations for borrowing are also linked to the respondents’ characteristics.

Findings

The results indicate that females and the poor are less likely to be included in financial systems, while education level enhances financial inclusion. As disadvantaged people consider access to credit is important to improving their lives, the study finds that the poor are more likely to borrow for medical issues than for other needs. While Islam is the majority religion in the MENAP region, it is not considered a barrier to having a formal bank account. Furthermore, people in different income quintiles are more likely to use informal financial sources, while the educated are more likely to use formal ones.

Practical implications

The results show that policymakers in MENAP should make more of an effort to enhance financial inclusion as a way to enhance economic development in the region. Also, governments institutions, such as central banks, financial ministries and other institutions, could build on these results to enhance financial inclusion as a way toward development in the MENAP region.

Originality/value

To the author’s best knowledge, this is the first study to examine the influence of individuals’ characteristics on financial inclusion in the MENAP region.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2021

Chuanjiang Yu, Nan Jia, Wenqi Li and Rui Wu

This paper examines the impact and mechanism of China's digital inclusive finance on rural consumption upgrade. First, the impact of the development of digital inclusive…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines the impact and mechanism of China's digital inclusive finance on rural consumption upgrade. First, the impact of the development of digital inclusive finance on the upgrading of rural household consumption structure is to be theoretically analyzed and empirically tested. Secondly, in terms of heterogeneity analysis, it pays attention to the age heterogeneity of users that digital inclusive finance influencing rural residents' developmental consumption upgrade, which is related to the issue of intergenerational “digital gap”. Thirdly, the mechanism of digital inclusive finance in promoting rural consumption upgrade is to be investigated. Finally, how to promote the role of digital inclusive finance in upgrading the structure of rural consumption to a developmental demand level will be showed.

Design/methodology/approach

From the perspective of the micro-household, this study is conducted by using the instrumental variable (IV) method, with 2SLS model and IV-Tobit model, based on the matched city-level data of Digital Inclusive Financial Index (DIFI) with the Chinese Household Financial Survey (CHFS). “The relief degree of land surface” is an ideal instrumental variable of digital inclusive finance, for including regional altitude difference and terrain factors of regional area, has theoretical influence on the development of digital inclusive finance, and is not affected by other economic variables.

Findings

The conclusions show that the digital inclusive finance plays a significant role in promoting the rural households' developmental consumption, but has no significant effect on the rural households' survival-type consumption and hedonistic consumption. Furthermore, this paper examines the impact and mechanism of China's digital inclusive finance on rural consumption upgrade. First, the impact of the development of digital inclusive finance on the upgrading of rural household consumption structure is to be theoretically analyzed and empirically tested. Secondly, it is discovered that digital inclusive finance is age heterogeneous in promoting the upgrade of consumption structure of rural household, and its effect on the elderly is weaker than that on the young for the intergenerational “digital gap”. Thirdly, these conclusions reveal that the digital inclusive finance does affect the consumption of rural residents through three mechanisms: increasing income and wealth, easing liquidity constraints and facilitating payment methods. Finally, how to promote the role of digital inclusive finance in upgrading the structure of rural consumption to a developmental demand level will be showed.

Originality/value

The current research on the relationship between digital inclusive finance and rural consumption only stays at the level of total rural consumption and has not stressed the structural problems of rural consumption. Can digital inclusive finance promote the upgrade of rural consumption structure? To what level can digital inclusive finance promote the upgrading of rural consumption structure? Therefore, it is of great theoretical value to study the upgrading of rural consumption structure from the micro level. Can the current digital inclusive finance benefit the elderly and help break the vulnerability of the elderly to enjoy finance? In this regard, evidence of heterogeneity remains to be provided.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

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