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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2007

Maria Kümpel Nørgaard, Karen Bruns, Pia Haudrup Christensen and Miguel Romero Mikkelsen

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to studies of family decision making during food buying. In particular a theoretical framework is proposed for structuring…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to studies of family decision making during food buying. In particular a theoretical framework is proposed for structuring future studies of family decision making that include children's influence and participation at specific stages of the process.

Design/methodology/approach

The conceptual framework is developed on the basis of earlier theoretical work focused on family shopping as well as an ethnographic study of parents and children. The framework was refined after testing in a survey with 451 Danish families with children aged ten to 13 using questionnaires for both children and parents.

Findings

Family food decision making is often a joint activity, and children's active participation, among other things, determines the influence they gain. Parents and children do not always agree on how much influence children have in the various stages of the process, indicating the importance of listening to both parties in research into the family dynamics and processes involved in everyday food buying.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should further extend the knowledge about the areas where children have influence, about the techniques used by children to achieve influence, and more about those factors that explain when they gain influence.

Practical implications

Marketers can benefit from the findings when promoting food products to adults as well as to children. Specifically, the findings suggest that children have most influence on decisions regarding easily prepared meals.

Originality/value

This mixed‐method approach provides interesting new results, and the main findings emphasise the importance of looking at food decision making as a joint activity where children participate actively and gain influence.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Suzanne Waddingham, Stella Stevens, Kate Macintyre and Kelly Shaw

The Australian Dietary Guidelines support good health and disease prevention. Children with healthy eating habits established early in life have been shown to continue…

2191

Abstract

Purpose

The Australian Dietary Guidelines support good health and disease prevention. Children with healthy eating habits established early in life have been shown to continue these habits into adulthood compared with those children who have poor eating habits in their younger years. The nutritional intake of many Australian children is not in accordance with the national guidelines. The reasons children make the food choices they do are unclear from the literature. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used participatory action research methods to explore why primary school-aged children make the food choices that they do. A non-government primary school requested assistance in encouraging their children to make healthier choices from the school canteen menu. The authors gathered opinions from the children in two different ways; a group discussion during class and a “discovery day” that involved four class grades. The authors identified children’s food preferences and food availability in canteens. The authors explored how the children perceived healthy foods, the importance of a healthy food environment and what criteria children use to decide what foods to buy.

Findings

Children’s food preferences were mostly for unhealthy foods, and these were readily available in the canteen. The perception about what foods were healthy was limited. Despite being asked to develop a “healthy” menu, the majority of choices made by the children were not healthy. Children described unhealthy choices as preferable because of taste of the food, if it was sugary, if it was quick to eat, available and cheap, the relationship of food and weather, the connection to health conditions and peer dominance.

Practical implications

This study suggests that children make their food choices based on simple concepts. The challenge lies around producing healthy options in collaboration with the school community that match the children’s food choice criteria.

Originality/value

This paper provides a modern and inspiring whole school approach based on equity and empowerment of the children. Discovering why children make food choices from the children’s perspective will help to present healthy options that will be more appealing for children. The methodology used to uncover why children make their food choices has also provided valuable insight into a study design that could be used to address other childhood research questions. The methodology offers an educative experience while gathering rich information directly from the children. This information can be used by the school to support children to have more control over their health and to develop behaviours to increase their health for the rest of their lives.

Article
Publication date: 13 November 2020

Haiming Hang and Cui-Lin Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to see whether children’ regulatory fit/nonfit can moderate the implicit influence of in-game advertising.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to see whether children’ regulatory fit/nonfit can moderate the implicit influence of in-game advertising.

Design/methodology/approach

An experiment was done with 418 children (aged 7–11) from three primary schools in a middle-size city in China that voluntarily took part in the experiment. Children were randomly allocated to the following four conditions: playing a game without any brands (a control group), playing the same game and exposed to a subtle in-game advertising (a test control group), playing the same branded game with regulatory fit (regulatory fit group) and playing the same branded game with regulatory nonfit (regulatory nonfit group).

Findings

The results first suggest exposure to in-game advertising makes children more likely to choose it afterward, despite most of them are not aware being exposed to it. The results further suggest children’s regulatory fit does not further increase children’s choice of the focal brand, suggesting linking the focal brand to fun and engaging game experiences is sufficient to influence their brand choice. However, children’s regulatory nonfit attenuates the implicit influence of in-game advertising.

Originality/value

By focusing on children’s game strategy, this research complements the extant literature that only focuses on advertising features and/or game character to document the implicit influence of in-game advertising. In addition, by focusing on regulatory fit/nonfit, this paper provides initial evidence how contextual factors such as children’s game strategy may help them cope with advertising influence built on affect transfer.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 22 January 2019

Kee-Cheok Cheong, Christopher Hill, Yin-Ching Leong, Chen Zhang and Zheng Zhang

Using a Southeast Asian context, this paper asks a question that has seldom been researched: Is there a divergence between parents’ and their college-going children’s

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Abstract

Purpose

Using a Southeast Asian context, this paper asks a question that has seldom been researched: Is there a divergence between parents’ and their college-going children’s perceptions of education and employability at a time of rapid economic change? If such a divergence exists, it would have hidden costs for the children. Parents’ choice of professions no longer in demand when their children reach working age can permanently damage the latter’s earning power. Also, parents’ choice of fields of study that their children are not proficient or interested in jeopardizes the latter’s chances of success in their studies. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using mixed methods, a combination of structured online questionnaires from two local special-purpose sample surveys conducted by the authors, and follow-up interviews. Graduate Employment Survey 2 (GES2) was the second of a three-phase British Council-sponsored study, focusing on TNE, that used a structured online questionnaire for students of several tertiary education institutions, both in the public and private sectors, and for several group interviews of students in 2015. A structured questionnaire was also administered to a small number of parents.

Findings

In terms of employment, the rankings of HEIs by parents and students were generally consistent. Study in foreign HEIs abroad has the highest likelihood of employment. Branch campuses were ranked next highest. Despite this, of interest is the difference in mean scores between first and second ranked HEIs. Whereas students rate branch campuses as not much inferior to foreign university campuses, parents see a major gulf between them – they rate foreign campuses more highly than branch campuses more poorly. This difference is likely caused by parents’ traditional preference for foreign study over local, coupled with a lack of TNE knowledge.

Social implications

A fundamental issue of perception is how parents and students see the role of education. Is education a destination or is education a journey? This disconnect has consequences. Given the shifting nature of employment, the need for transferable skills and the fact that some of the jobs that the next generation will be doing are not even known today, parental advice based on what they know may not do justice to their children’s choice of career. Likewise, the approach of TNE to promote traditional degrees to job paths is also a conventional approach that has a limited shelf life.

Originality/value

The role of parents in education choice has received surprisingly scant academic attention. With technological change driving product and service innovation ever more rapidly, previously unknown types of work have emerged in a relatively short span of time. In this situation, the risk of mismatched perceptions between parents and their children, whose educational experience spans a generation, is becoming increasingly real. While most studies of a parental role have been undertaken for Western countries, there is much less research on East Asian parents’ role in their children’s education.

Details

Higher Education Evaluation and Development, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-5789

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2015

Wafa Elias

The purposes of this study are to explore children’s independent mobility, that is the degree to which children of different ages are allowed to make trips to school…

Abstract

Purpose

The purposes of this study are to explore children’s independent mobility, that is the degree to which children of different ages are allowed to make trips to school, friends, shops, and other destinations unaccompanied by adults within the Arab communities in Israel and to study the influence of the demographic and socio-economic characteristics, built environment, geographical location, cultural context, and risk perceptions on children’s independent mobility.

Methodology

This study is based on a questionnaire given to children between 9 and 15 years old studying in 4th to 9th grades and to one parent or primary caregiver. The methodology of this study is based on descriptive statistics comparing independent mobility licenses and travel behavior of two school children groups: Arab and Jewish children. In addition logistic regression models were developed to study the influence of different factors on independent mobility such as: car availability, gender, age, social class, and so on. In order to examine whether children with independent mobility do more and have access to a wider range of activities than those who do not, a linear regression analysis was performed with the dependent variable being the number of unaccompanied journeys to the various activities in the weekend.

Findings

Results clearly show that boys were granted greater freedom in terms of mobility licenses, as were secondary school children compared with those attending primary school. Walking is still the main commuting mode to school. One of the important findings in this study is that children are not interested in walking. That is, regardless of the built environment and parents driving options, children prefer to be driven.

Social implications

This study will provide essential information for the development of policies and interventions in urban planning, transport planning, community development, community safety initiatives, and health planning.

Originality/value

This study is among the first to examine levels of independent mobility among the Arab school children in Israel, as well as their participation in active transport (e.g., walking/cycling) during journeys to school and to other local destinations.

Therefore, this study will hopefully provide a baseline for future studies in this area and act as a catalyst for more research into independence and mobility, and how this impacts sustainability.

Details

Sustainable Urban Transport
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-615-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 September 2011

Ronan de Kervenoael, Catherine Canning, Mark Palmer and Alan Hallsworth

In the UK, while fashion apparel purchasing is available to the majority of consumers, the main supermarkets seem – rather against the odds and market conventions – to…

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Abstract

Purpose

In the UK, while fashion apparel purchasing is available to the majority of consumers, the main supermarkets seem – rather against the odds and market conventions – to have created a new, socially‐acceptable and legitimate, apparel market offer for young children. This study aims to explore parental purchasing decisions on apparel for young children (below ten years old) focusing on supermarket diversification into apparel and consumer resistance against other traditional brands.

Design/methodology/approach

Data collection adopted a qualitative research mode: using semi‐structured interviews in two locations (Cornwall Please correct and check againand Glasgow), each with a Tesco and ASDA located outside towns. A total of 59 parents participated in the study. Interviews took place in the stores, with parents seen buying children fashion apparel.

Findings

The findings suggest that decisions are based not only on functionality (e.g. convenience, value for money, refund policy), but also on intuitive factors (e.g. style, image, quality) as well as broader processes of consumption from parental boundary setting (e.g. curbing premature adultness). Positive consumer resistance is leading to a re‐drawing of the cultural boundaries of fashion. In some cases, concerns are expressed regarding items that seem too adult‐like or otherwise not as children's apparel should be.

Practical implications

The paper highlights the increasing importance of browsing as a modern choice practice (e.g. planned impulse buying, sanctuary of social activity). Particular attention is given to explaining why consumers positively resist buying from traditional label providers and voluntarily choose supermarket clothing ranges without any concerns over their children wearing such garments.

Originality/value

The paper shows that supermarket shopping for children's apparel is now firmly part of UK consumption habits and choice. The findings provide theoretical insights into the significance of challenging market conventions, parental cultural boundary setting and positive resistance behaviour.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 June 2009

Tai Ming Wut and Ting‐Jui Chou

Focus of previous research into family purchasing decisions has centred on the husband and wife. Children's influences on family decision making have increased in recent…

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Abstract

Purpose

Focus of previous research into family purchasing decisions has centred on the husband and wife. Children's influences on family decision making have increased in recent decades. The purpose of this paper is to investigate children's influences on Chinese family decision making in Hong Kong.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a survey of 366 family members in Hong Kong.

Findings

Children are found to have more influence in the choice‐making stage of decision making and parents still control the final decision, which is consistent with previous research findings.

Practical implications

Parents and their children usually engage jointly in family decision making. Marketers should address the needs of both parties and work to help to resolve any conflict that may arise.

Originality/value

The study is framed within resources theory to examine children's influence in two decision stages of family decision making.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 January 2020

Juliana Maria Magalhães Christino, Erico Aurelio Abreu Cardozo, Thaís Santos Silva and Caroline Mazzini

This study aims to understand the extent to which packaging influences Brazilian parents' purchasing willingness based on children's food preferences for unhealthy food products.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to understand the extent to which packaging influences Brazilian parents' purchasing willingness based on children's food preferences for unhealthy food products.

Design/methodology/approach

Parents, with children up to 12 years old, answered questions about the positive influence of the packaging on the children, the preferences of the children in their willingness to buy and the propensity to give in to the desires of the children. Data analysis was performed with the statistical software SPSS and Stata used for structural equations modeling.

Findings

The results back the outlined hypotheses and point out that the characteristics of the packaging positively influence children's preferences as well as parents’ who are prone to give in to such influences. In some relationships, there was a minute moderating effect of social desirability and social class.

Research limitations/implications

The research presents as a limitation the nature of the sample, parents, to the extent that the influences of the packages on the children were analyzed from their perspectives.

Practical implications

Findings from the research can be used to think about preventive public policies to protect children as highly vulnerable subjects. Another practical implication is that the same marketing strategies that are used for unhealthy foods can also be used for healthy foods, improving their linkage to the children once there are evidences that packaging can positively influence their preferences.

Originality/value

The originality of this study is to focus on children's food preferences for unhealthy products and in parents with children up to 12 years old, which is not often investigated by researchers.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 February 2022

Matthew A. Lapierre, Anjali Ashtaputre and Jennifer Stevens Aubrey

Using gender schema theory, this study aims to explore how children’s graphic t-shirts from clothing retailers in the USA differed on gendered themes for graphic t-shirts…

Abstract

Purpose

Using gender schema theory, this study aims to explore how children’s graphic t-shirts from clothing retailers in the USA differed on gendered themes for graphic t-shirts targeting boys or girls, in addition to differences for shirts that were higher in cost.

Design/methodology/approach

This content analysis of children’s t-shirts included 866 child-targeted shirts taken from the online retail portals from 11 clothing retailers in the USA. Shirts were coded for gendered themes on the front torso part of the shirt and included traditional boy themes (e.g. aggression, instrumentality) and girl themes (e.g. compassion, passivity). In addition, the retail prices for each shirt were recorded at the time of data collection.

Findings

The results demonstrated that children’s graphic t-shirts starkly differentiate between femininity and masculinity based on their target. Boys’ shirts were significantly more likely to feature active themes, whereas girls’ shirts were more likely to focus on social belonging and interpersonal connection. Boys’ shirts were also more likely to display themes linked to dominance/aggression but not compassion. Girls’ shirts were more likely to tout both shyness and attention seeking. Finally, results generally showed that higher priced t-shirts were less likely to feature gender stereotypes than lower-priced t-shirts.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first known study that has looked at the marketing of children’s clothes in retail environments with a specific focus on gender and gender stereotyping.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Yan Yu Cora Sung and Dickson K.W. Chiu

This study aims to examine the perception and preference of parents for their children using mobile devices to read. The pros and cons of electronic books and print books…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the perception and preference of parents for their children using mobile devices to read. The pros and cons of electronic books and print books are examined from the parents' perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 parents in Hong Kong, who have children in primary and secondary schools. Their opinions were summarized into common themes to explore their choice of books for children in terms of format and content.

Findings

The findings indicated that most parents and schools still prefer print books unless required by schools. However, the e-book has played an essential role under the current COVID-19 pandemic and digital literacy development.

Originality/value

Scant studies focus on parents' views on their choice of book formats for children, especially for East Asian metropolises. The findings are useful for schools, teachers and publishers to explore publication and collection, as well as market development in digital reading resources.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

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