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Article

Noor Hasmini A. Ghani and Osman M. Zain

Explores the attitudes of children in Malaysia’s competitive children’s market towards TV advertising, and how this affects their spending; children influence the market…

Abstract

Explores the attitudes of children in Malaysia’s competitive children’s market towards TV advertising, and how this affects their spending; children influence the market as immediate consumers, as influencers of their parents and other people, and as future adult consumers. Outlines the objectives and methodology of new quantitative research conducted into predictors of children’s attitudes, which also includes the effect of children’s attitudes on parents; the current research involved two primary schools in the Jitra town area, with a total of 252 children. Gives the background of child attitude research since Piaget, and explains the Rossiter scale. Identifies children’s preferences in products, themes and types of TV advertising. Finds that children’s awareness of advertising, and the influence on parents’ purchase decisions, are important predictors of child attitudes to advertising; the influence of TV advertising does impinge on consumer behaviour, whether of children or of their parents as a result of pestering, and younger children and children from lower social classes are especially susceptible to TV advertisements.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article

Catharine M. Curran and Jef I. Richards

Over the past 30 years the United States has grappled with the regulation of children's advertising in various media. The same debate that occurred in the 1970's in the US…

Abstract

Over the past 30 years the United States has grappled with the regulation of children's advertising in various media. The same debate that occurred in the 1970's in the US over banning children's advertising is heating up in the EU today. As with other regulatory issues the regulation of children's advertising involves trade‐offs. In the US, the First Amendment rights of the advertisers must be balanced with the government interest in protecting children. The regulation of children's advertising also involves balancing the competing interests of advocacy groups, legislators, broadcasters and advertisers. Advocacy groups have been very effective in focusing public attention on the issues of children's advertising. One of the most vocal and impactful groups was Action for Children's Television (ACT), whose efforts culminated in the passage of the 1990 Children's Television Act. Once that was accomplished, ACT was disbanded. In more recent years, however, the Centre for Media Education (CME) has replaced ACT in calling for regulation of children's advertising. CME was instrumental in pushing the 1996 FTC investigation related to 900 telephone numbers directed at children, and is now behind the Child Online Protection Act (COPA). The same questions raised nearly 30 years ago by ACT are now being cast in the US in terms of the Internet, otherwise little has changed. Each new innovation in media and technology ushers similar questions to the table, and the same balancing act must again be employed to answer the basic question: how far do we go to protect our children? The US's answer to this question offers insights for other countries seeking answers to similar questions.

Details

International Journal of Advertising and Marketing to Children, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6676

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Article

Jill Kurp Maher, John B. Lord, Renée Shaw Hughner and Nancy M. Childs

This research investigates the changes in the types of advertised food products and the use of nutritional versus consumer appeals in children’s advertising from 2000 to 2005.

Abstract

Purpose

This research investigates the changes in the types of advertised food products and the use of nutritional versus consumer appeals in children’s advertising from 2000 to 2005.

Design/methodology/approach

Content Analysis.

Findings

Results indicate that food processors and restaurants have not changed their advertising messages to children in response to the multitude of pressures the industry is facing. Specifically, this pre‐post longitudinal comparison shows no significant change regarding types of food products advertised and type of appeals used in the ads directed to children.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations include the sample studied. While the ads recorded all came from television programming aimed specifically at children, there was no specification or ability to classify the consumers according to the age of the viewer. Additionally, duplicate exposures of the ads were not included in the study.

Practical implications

Obesity is a serious and expanding concern for our children’s health. As past advertising research and socialization theory suggest, children’s exposure to advertising has impact. It is important to monitor changes in food advertising to children in the future to ascertain whether and to what extent food companies are able to change both what they advertise and the appeals they use to gain consumers’, in this case, children’s attention.

Originality/value

This study provides a useful baseline (prior to 2001) and benchmark (post 2001) to longitudinally examine the food product and appeal usage in food advertising directed to children. This will be useful information for advertisers, for parents, for regulators and for special interest groups, all of whom have a common goal – healthy kids.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article

Liudmila Tarabashkina, Pascale G. Quester and Roberta Crouch

Studies to date have focused on one or very few factors, rather than exploring a host of influences associated with children’s consumption of energy-dense foods. This is…

Abstract

Purpose

Studies to date have focused on one or very few factors, rather than exploring a host of influences associated with children’s consumption of energy-dense foods. This is surprising as multiple agents are relevant to children’s food consumer socialisation (parents, peers, social norms and food advertising). This study aims to address these gaps and offers the first comprehensive empirical assessment of a wide cluster of variables.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional study was undertaken with children aged 7-13 years and their parents/main carers, collecting family metrics from parents and data directly from children. Structural Equation Modelling was used to estimate a series of interdependence relationships in four steps, revealing the increased explained variance in children’s consumption of energy-dense foods.

Findings

The inclusion of multiple potential factors increased the percentage of explained variance in children’s consumption of energy-dense foods. The models explicate which factors relate to frequent consumption in children, and clarify various indirect influences on children through parents.

Originality/value

For the first time, a wider range of variables was integrated to maximise the percentage of explained variance in children’s behaviour, providing policy makers and social marketers with novel insights regarding areas that need to be prioritised for consumer education. Both direct and indirect relationships were assessed. Data were collected from parents and their children to provide an original methodological contribution and richer data for investigation.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 51 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article

Nancy H. Brinson and Steven Holiday

Addressable television is an interactive medium that blends online data personalization with traditional TV content to better address individual consumers and improve…

Abstract

Purpose

Addressable television is an interactive medium that blends online data personalization with traditional TV content to better address individual consumers and improve advertising outcomes. Drawing on the persuasion knowledge model (PKM) and the influence of presumed influence (IPI), this paper aims to examine parents’ beliefs about the nature and persuasive intent of addressable TV advertising targeting their children, and the intervening influence those beliefs have on the parents’ intentions to purchase the advertised products.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used an online survey design to examine the influence that addressable TV ads targeting children have on parents’ consumer behaviors. In total, 196 parents of children aged 3 to 12 completed the study. The majority of respondents had one (23%) or two (40.3%) children were primarily in two-parent (73.5%) or one-parent households (21.9%), and 79.6% indicated that they were mothers. Respondents were 23 to 41 years old (M = 37, SD = 8.03); dominantly Caucasian (77.5%; 16.8% African American); had an education of less than a college degree (65.3%); and a median household income of $50,000–$75,000 (73.5%).

Findings

Findings from this study indicate beliefs that a TV ad personally addressing their children positively influence parents’ purchase intentions, and this influence is partially mediated by perceptions of children’s susceptibility to the ad and perceptions of the likelihood of children’s purchase requests. Beliefs in children’s susceptibility to an ad’s addressability alternatively negatively mediates parents’ purchase intentions when not sequentially mediated by beliefs in the likelihood of children’s purchase requests.

Originality/value

Currently, there is little published research related to parents’ perceptions about the effects of personalized advertising targeting their children in general, and none that consider addressable TV advertising or the indirect influence this targeted advertising has on parents. Thus, this study provides important insights for scholars interested in theoretical implications related to addressable TV advertising, as well as practitioners seeking to enhance addressable TV advertising outcomes.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article

Nancy M. Childs and Jill K. Maher

Examines advertisers’ use of gender in food advertising to children. Previous studies of gender preference in children’s advertising suggest gender bias exists. Food…

Abstract

Examines advertisers’ use of gender in food advertising to children. Previous studies of gender preference in children’s advertising suggest gender bias exists. Food products are most often gender‐neutral. Advertising for food products is compared to non‐food advertisements. Examines measures of voice‐over gender, gender of dominant product user, gender of main character, activity level, aggressive behavior level, and soundtrack volume. A sample of food advertisements to children exhibits greater gender preference in presentation than the comparison sample of non‐food advertisements to children. This suggests that food advertising should consider gender bias among other factors when proceeding with self‐regulation of children’s advertising.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 105 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

Nathalie Dens, Patrick De Pelsmacker and Lynne Eagle

The purpose of this paper is to investigate parents' attitudes toward advertising to children, and advertised foods in particular, as well as parental concern regarding…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate parents' attitudes toward advertising to children, and advertised foods in particular, as well as parental concern regarding children's nutrition habits and the degree to which these perceptions influence television monitoring by parents.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire assessing attitudes was distributed among parents of Belgian primary and secondary school children. Parental mediation of television viewing was measured by self‐reports. A structural equation model was built using data from a sample of 485 parents.

Findings

The study finds that parental nutrition attitudes and the degree to which advertising causes family conflicts and pestering are among the most important drivers of restrictive mediation of television. Attitudes towards food advertising, the degree to which children can understand the commercial intent of advertising and the perceived influence of advertisements on children do not directly affect restrictive mediation.

Research limitations/implications

The model was based on a single‐country study, and did not distinguish between parents of different socio‐economic backgrounds or between parents with children in different age categories. All the constructs used in this model were self‐reports. The model could also be extended to encompass different types of mediation.

Practical implications

Parents serve as gatekeepers for children's television viewing. Advertisers targeting children need to obtain the green light of the gatekeepers before they can reach the children. It is therefore important that advertisers have an understanding of how parents perceive advertising and which factors specifically incite them to restrict their children's viewing.

Originality/value

Attitudes of parents are considered as a multidimensional construct, consisting of “commercial intent”, “conflict” and a separate component relating to advertised foods. The differential impact of each of these components, as well as parents' nutritional concerns and perceived advertisement influence, on restrictive mediation is assessed.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article

Kara Chuen and James U. McNeal

Explores the attitudes to TV advertising of Chinese children, the “little emperors/empresses“ who now have enormous influence on the market, largely as a result of the…

Abstract

Explores the attitudes to TV advertising of Chinese children, the “little emperors/empresses“ who now have enormous influence on the market, largely as a result of the one‐child policy that China adopted in 1979; like children elsewhere, they appear to pay less attention to commercials as they get older and become more sceptical about their truthfulness. Outlines the methodology used in the research, differences between Hong Kong and mainland children, children’s favourite commercials, and their views of advertised versus non‐advertised brands. Moves on to regulation of children’s advertising: unlike many Western countries, there is a lack of specific regulation of TV advertising to children, and the rapid though uneven growth of TV advertising in China has led to irresponsible practices.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article

Suzanna J. Opree, Moniek Buijzen and Eva A. van Reijmersdal

It is generally believed that children’s advertising exposure decreases life satisfaction. This paper aims to investigate whether and how it does by examining the relation…

Abstract

Purpose

It is generally believed that children’s advertising exposure decreases life satisfaction. This paper aims to investigate whether and how it does by examining the relation between advertising exposure and life satisfaction (Aim 1), as well as the mediating roles of psychological wellbeing (Aim 2) and its underlying dimensions (Aim 3).

Design/methodology/approach

Three-wave panel data were collected among 1,133 8-12-year-olds. Psychological wellbeing was measured overall and per dimension (i.e. environmental mastery, personal growth, purpose in life, self-acceptance, autonomy and positive relationships with others).

Findings

The authors found a nonsignificant total effect of advertising exposure at Wave 1 on life satisfaction at Wave 3: The negative direct effect was annulled by the positive indirect effect via overall psychological wellbeing at Wave 2. Detailed analysis revealed that personal growth and autonomy functioned as positive mediators, and purpose in life as a negative mediator in the relation between advertising exposure and life satisfaction.

Social implications

This research informs the ethical debate surrounding child-directed advertising, showing it might stimulate children’s sense of control over their environment, openness to new experiences, direction in life and sense of self-agency.

Originality/value

This study is the first to examine advertising’s effect on life satisfaction and psychological wellbeing simultaneously. The study used a large sample and a longitudinal panel design, allowing conclusions about the specific effects of advertising exposure.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 50 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article

Lionel Stanbrook

Reviews the growing pressure in the UK to establish a more restrictive regime in children’s advertising; much of this pressure comes from Sweden. Links this vehement…

Abstract

Reviews the growing pressure in the UK to establish a more restrictive regime in children’s advertising; much of this pressure comes from Sweden. Links this vehement opposition to children’s TV advertising to distrust of both advertising and television, and compares BBC and commercial programming. Points to the growth of merchandising in children’s programming, and to the high revenues obtainable from this; these can far exceed that from advertising alone. Argues that children’s programming has increased enormously in the last decade, except in countries where advertising has been banned, and so that bans on broadcast advertising appear to be ineffective and inappropriate.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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