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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2017

David Baldridge, Alison M. Konrad, Mark E. Moore and Yang Yang

Persons with childhood-onset disabilities are among the most marginalized populations, often unemployed or underemployment in jobs providing neither adequate hours for…

Abstract

Purpose

Persons with childhood-onset disabilities are among the most marginalized populations, often unemployed or underemployment in jobs providing neither adequate hours for financial self-sufficiency nor fulfillment through skill-utilization. The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which social capital in the form of strong ties with family and friends is associated with enhanced employment outcomes for persons with childhood-onset disabilities.

Design/methodology/approach

Questioning the current theoretical consensus that strong social ties are unimportant to employment quality, the authors draw on disability research and opportunity, motivation and ability social capital theory to propose a model of the impact of strong ties with family and friends on paid-work-hours and skill-utilization as well as the potential moderating role of gender and disability severity. The authors then test this model using data from 1,380 people with childhood-onset disabilities and OLS regression analysis.

Findings

As theorized, family-of-origin-size is positively associated with hours worked. Family-of-origin-size is also associated with having more close friends and children. These strong ties, in turn, are positively associated with hours worked. The impact of having more children on hours worked and skill-utilization, however, is positive for men but non-significant for women.

Originality/value

This study breaks new ground by focusing on the association between strong ties with family and friends and employment quality for people with childhood-onset disabilities – a marginalized and understudied group. Findings further indicate the particular vulnerability of women with disabilities.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 26 July 2012

Jonathan Kusumi and Randal G. Ross

Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) refers to schizophrenia with onset of psychotic symptoms prior to a child's 13th birthday. Optimal treatment likely includes…

Abstract

Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) refers to schizophrenia with onset of psychotic symptoms prior to a child's 13th birthday. Optimal treatment likely includes family-based services supplementing antipsychotic pharmacotherapy. However, family-based services can require adjustment based on parental psychopathology; there has been little literature exploring the frequency or type of psychopathology seen in parents of COS cases. This report includes the results of a structured psychiatric evaluation on 80 parents of a COS case with comparison to a sample of 304 parents. Having a child with psychosis and being of minority racial/ethnicity status increased risk for psychiatric illness. Psychotic disorders (15% vs. 5%), mood disorders (54% vs. 27%), anxiety disorders (30% vs. 18%), and substance use disorders (49% vs. 31%) were all increased in the parents with a psychotic child. Psychiatric illness is common in parents of a child with COS and will need to be considered as family-based services for COS are developed.

Details

Mental Illness, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

Design/methodology/approach

This briefing is prepared by an independent writer who adds their own impartial comments and places the articles in context.

Findings

The paper examines the extent to which social capital in the form of strong ties with family and friends is associated with enhanced employment outcomes for persons with childhood-onset disabilities. As theorized, family-of-origin size is positively associated with hours worked. Family-of-origin size is also associated with having more close friends and children. These strong ties, in turn, are positively associated with hours worked. The impact of having more children on hours worked and skill utilization, however, is positive for men but non-significant for women.

Practical implications

The paper provides strategic insights and practical thinking that have influenced some of the world’s leading organizations.

Originality/value

The briefing saves busy executives and researchers hours of reading time by selecting only the very best, most pertinent information and presenting it in a condensed and easy-to-digest format.

Details

Human Resource Management International Digest, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-0734

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 February 2013

Randal G. Ross, Julia Maximon, Jonathan Kusumi and Susan Lurie

Violence is elevated in older adolescents and adults with schizophrenia; however, little is known about younger children. This report focuses on rates of violence in…

Abstract

Violence is elevated in older adolescents and adults with schizophrenia; however, little is known about younger children. This report focuses on rates of violence in younger children with schizophrenic-spectrum illnesses. A retrospective review of structured diagnostic interviews from a case series of 81 children, ages 4-15 years of age, with childhood onset of schizophrenic-spectrum illness is reported. Seventy-two percent of children had a history of violent behavior, including 25 children (31%) with a history of severe violence. Of those with a history of violence, 60% had a least one episode of violence that did not appear to be in response to an external stimulus (internally driven violence). There was no significant impact of age or gender. For many children, these internally driven violent episodes were rare and unpredictable, but severe. Similar to what is found in adolescents and adults, violence is common in children with schizophrenic-spectrum illnesses. General violence prevention strategies combined with early identification and treatment of childhood psychotic illnesses may decrease the morbidity associated with childhood psychotic violence.

Details

Mental Illness, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

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Book part
Publication date: 4 November 2003

Lois M Verbrugge and Li-shou Yang

We study disability duration and two aspects of disability timing (simultaneous vs. gradual onset; childhood vs. adulthood onset) for U.S. community-dwelling adults. The…

Abstract

We study disability duration and two aspects of disability timing (simultaneous vs. gradual onset; childhood vs. adulthood onset) for U.S. community-dwelling adults. The data set is the National Health Interview Survey Disability Supplement. Disabilities in personal care, household management, and physical tasks are analyzed. Results show that most adults with disability are older and have recent onsets. But up to a third of those whose disability started in childhood have entered middle and older ages. For most people, disabilities in a domain usually all start at the same time; gradual accumulation is less common. The mixing of simultaneous and gradual onsets, and of childhood-onset and adulthood-onset, produces great heterogeneity in the population of disabled adults. Our results give demographic support to the contemporary movement in local and state jurisdictions to combine aging services and disability services.

Details

Using Survey Data to Study Disability: Results from the National Health Survey on Disability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-007-4

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Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2018

Alesa Liles and Stacy Moak

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to highlight recent research addressing theories of female offending and the context of female perpetrated homicides. Women have…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to highlight recent research addressing theories of female offending and the context of female perpetrated homicides. Women have often been omitted in research and theory development, thus gendered interventions and treatments lag behind. Additionally, female perpetrated homicides are rare, consequently research examining the context of the events and the events leading up to the homicide are inadequate.

Design/methodology/approach – The approach is to examine the historical research on female offenders, the context of female violent offenses particularly homicide offenses, and emerging theories of gendered experiences into criminal activities for women.

Findings – Findings indicate that gender matters when explaining theories of female offending and when examining the context of female perpetrated homicides.

Originality/value – Females have different life events from males, and these life events create distinct pathways into criminal offending, including the ultimate offense of homicide. Based on these differences, theory development as well as intervention and prevention strategies must be designed that are gender specific.

Details

Homicide and Violent Crime
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-876-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

Laurier Fortin

Students’ antisocial behavior can often lead to violence in school. Longitudinal studies pertaining to antisocial behavior have contributed considerably to the development…

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4873

Abstract

Students’ antisocial behavior can often lead to violence in school. Longitudinal studies pertaining to antisocial behavior have contributed considerably to the development of knowledge in this field of research. This knowledge now enables us to identify the different developmental stages of aggressive and antisocial behavior during childhood and adolescence. Consequently, we are better able to identify antisocial behavior in the classroom, to describe the developmental pathways leading to antisocial behavior, to identify the risk factors relating to this issue and finally, to predict who might be at‐risk of developing antisocial behavior. In the past, antisocial behavior was conceived as following a single developmental pathway encompassing several categories of behavioral problems. Now, on the other hand, many studies demonstrate how the development of these behaviors can be explained through different pathways.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Book part
Publication date: 28 January 2011

Julie A. Deisinger

Child psychiatrist Leo Kanner (pronounced “Konner;” Feinstein, 2010, p. 19) published a ground-breaking paper in 1943 that introduced the world to the present-day concept…

Abstract

Child psychiatrist Leo Kanner (pronounced “Konner;” Feinstein, 2010, p. 19) published a ground-breaking paper in 1943 that introduced the world to the present-day concept of autism (Fombonne, 2003; Goldstein & Ozonoff, 2009; Roth, 2010). Prior to Kanner, however, several physicians described the condition of autism without identifying it as such. A textbook published in 1809, titled Observations on Madness and Melancholy, contained a description of a boy whose symptoms fit the modern definition of autism (Feinstein, 2010; Vaillant, 1962). The book's author, Dr. John Haslam, wrote about a 5-year-old male who was admitted to the Bethlem Asylum in 1799 with a medical history that included a case of measles when he was 1 year old. The boy's mother claimed that at age 2 years, her son became harder to control. She also indicated that he did not begin to walk until he was 2½ years of age and did not talk until he was 4 years old. Once hospitalized, the boy cried only briefly upon separation from his mother and was “constantly in action” (Vaillant, 1962, p. 376), suggesting that he was hyperactive. Hyperactivity is a characteristic commonly found in children with ASDs (APA, 2000; Wicks-Nelson & Israel, 2009). Although this child watched other boys at play in the hospital, he never joined them and played intently with toy soldiers by himself. The boy could not learn to read and always referred to himself in the third person (Vaillant, 1962). Grammatical errors in speech can be observed among individuals with ASDs (Roth, 2010; Wicks-Nelson & Israel, 2009).

Details

History of Special Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-629-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2007

Kiriakos Xenitidis, Elena Paliokosta, Stefanos Maltezos and Vangelis Pappas

The general public and professionals from a range of backgrounds have increasingly become interested in autism spectrum disorders. This interest is particularly relevant…

Abstract

The general public and professionals from a range of backgrounds have increasingly become interested in autism spectrum disorders. This interest is particularly relevant to learning disability practitioners. Both autism and learning disabilities are independently associated with increased risk of mental health problems. Thus, when a person has learning disabilities and an autism spectrum disorder, a comprehensive assessment for mental health problems is of paramount importance. This paper provides an overview of the assessment of mental health problems in adults and children with neurodevelopmental disorders. The general assessment principles are outlined followed by assessment issues related to specific conditions such as psychoses, mood disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Finally conclusions on the clinical implications are drawn.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Learning Disabilities, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-0180

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2020

Hana ALamari

Kindergarten children are more susceptible to diseases as they are still in the process of acquiring immunity. The purpose of this study was to assess kindergarten…

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322

Abstract

Purpose

Kindergarten children are more susceptible to diseases as they are still in the process of acquiring immunity. The purpose of this study was to assess kindergarten teachers’ and parents' perception of the prevalence of health problems among children in Kuwait and the role of health education in promotion of healthy habits.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodological aim of this study was to assess the factors that affected kindergarten children's health as children suffered from health problems that affected their quality of life. Therefore, a questionnaire was administered to evaluate kindergarten teachers’ and parents' perception of the main factors that caused increased health problems among children at higher rates than before. A total of 164 teachers and parents were recruited for this study and the questionnaire was completed.

Findings

The results indicated that kindergarten children suffered from different health problems that affected their quality of life. Lack of health knowledge and education in the society was one of the main reasons for the prevalence of these health problems among young children in Kuwait. The findings offered insight about the importance of health education and promotion in prevention of diseases.

Originality/value

This study offers insights into how to increase health knowledge and education in the Kuwaiti community to prevent and decrease health problems that affect children's health.

Details

Health Education, vol. 120 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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