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Book part
Publication date: 12 September 2017

Merethe Skårås

This chapter explores how marginalized youth, specifically former child soldiers in South Sudan, struggle to access education that is crucial in their reintegration…

Abstract

This chapter explores how marginalized youth, specifically former child soldiers in South Sudan, struggle to access education that is crucial in their reintegration process. The chapter draws upon data from a study focusing on the reintegration process of school boys formerly associated with armed forces and groups in South Sudan, and is based on ethnographic fieldwork including interviews and observations of 20 former child soldiers in Malakal, Upper Nile State. The study identifies a number of external factors that inhibit educational opportunities for the boys in their reintegration process. These are their life experiences, the impacts of war, their socioeconomic background and the lack of educational structures due to ongoing conflict. This study describes how the living conditions that motivated the boys to join the armed group are still present after their demobilization. Thus, they not only still find themselves in poverty but the time spent in the armed group and the impacts of war have put them in an even more marginalized position today than prior to their recruitment. The study argues that access to education is crucial in order to prevent recruitment and also re-recruitment to armed groups.

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2004

Kingsley Banya and Juliet Elu

Currently, more than 300,000 children under the age of eighteen are fighting as soldiers with government armed forces and armed opposition groups in more than thirty…

Abstract

Currently, more than 300,000 children under the age of eighteen are fighting as soldiers with government armed forces and armed opposition groups in more than thirty countries worldwide. In more than eighty-five countries, hundreds of thousands more under-eighteens have been recruited into government armed forces, paramilitaries, civil militia and a wide variety of non-state armed groups. Millions of children worldwide receive military training and indoctrination in youth movements and schools. While most child soldiers are aged between fifteen and eighteen, the youngest age reported is seven (UN Chronicle, Winter 2000).

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Suffer The Little Children
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-831-6

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2011

Lucille Grétry

The aim of the paper is to present some events in the life of ex‐child soldiers in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in relation to the social policy in place and the…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the paper is to present some events in the life of ex‐child soldiers in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in relation to the social policy in place and the social representation of child soldiers and childhood in the country. The paper presents an overall picture of the different interventions used with child soldiers in Kinshasa, some elements of the social representation of the child soldier, and finally three stages in a child soldier's life, which bring into question those representations.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used a qualitative approach including general informal observation, semi‐directive interviews, focus groups based on drawings and inquired‐investigator exercises with 45 ex‐child soldiers in three towns in DRC. Finally 12 interviews, based on the image classification exercise were carried out with Congolese adults belonging to the middle class in Kinshasa.

Findings

The paper suggests that child soldiers are represented as passive victims, while the reality of their life shows their capacity for action and decision.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the continuing fighting inside DRC, part of the population is not accessible.

Practical implications

The paper includes implications for actions by the NGO sector or other kinds of aid organization.

Originality/value

First, the paper uses new tools for collecting data from children. Second, it presents a study of a subject that, whilst being widely popularized through the media, lacks adequate scientific research. Third, the paper brings into question the Western point of view of the experience of child soldiers.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 31 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

The Comparative Study of Conscription in the Armed Forces
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-836-1

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Book part
Publication date: 9 December 2009

Shulamit Almog

The chapter contends that although Israeli reality is replete with legal issues, very few films deal directly with the law or with a legal process as a central theme…

Abstract

The chapter contends that although Israeli reality is replete with legal issues, very few films deal directly with the law or with a legal process as a central theme. Contemporary Israeli films are not very different from the early Israeli films in their embracement of a national heroic narrative, which typically leaves very little space for legal issues. The chapter demonstrates the absence of law from Israeli cinema by looking closely at war films, which are probably the most popular and influential Israeli films. War films reflect and in the same time participate in the construction of the Israeli collective consciousness, wherein the army experience is central. Tracing the way in which law is presented (or lacks representation) in them may shed light from a new angle on the role of law in shaping social and political norms in Israel.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-696-0

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2011

Madeleine Leonard, Martina McKnight and Spyros Spyrou

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the six main articles which represent the special issue on “Growing up in divided societies” and to locate the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the six main articles which represent the special issue on “Growing up in divided societies” and to locate the articles within a framework of children's experiences of divided societies.

Design/methodology/approach

The article reviews the main methodologies employed by authors of the six articles and evaluates how these methodologies contribute to debates on researching children and young people's everyday lives.

Findings

The paper presents the core findings of the six articles and discusses these in relation to core themes, methodologies and policy implications.

Originality/value

The authors argue that there is a dearth of research on children and young people's everyday lives in politically contested societies and the special issue responds to this vacuum.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 31 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 19 May 2009

Alexis A. Aronowitz

Purpose – To define, compare, and contrast human smuggling and trafficking, trace the route from recruitment and transportation to arrival at the destination and…

Abstract

Purpose – To define, compare, and contrast human smuggling and trafficking, trace the route from recruitment and transportation to arrival at the destination and exploitation; examine some incorrect assumptions about human trafficking.

Methodology – Literature review of academic studies, conference presentations, and reports issued by governmental, non-governmental, and international organizations.

Findings – Instead of being an international phenomenon in which women and children are recruited with false promises of employment and then exploited by male members of highly organized international trafficking networks, research shows that victims – including men – are exploited in their own countries outside of the commercial sexual industry by women and by others operating as individuals or often in loosely organized networks.

Value – This article summarizes what is known about human trafficking including trafficking for human organs and for children used as child soldiers.

Details

Immigration, Crime and Justice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-438-2

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Book part
Publication date: 18 January 2002

Lars Mjøset and Stephen Van Holde

Abstract

Details

The Comparative Study of Conscription in the Armed Forces
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-836-1

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2014

Arthur Sserwanga, Rebecca Isabella Kiconco, Malin Nystrand and Rachel Mindra

– The purpose of this study was to explore the role social entrepreneurship has played in post conflict recovery in Gulu district in northern Uganda.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to explore the role social entrepreneurship has played in post conflict recovery in Gulu district in northern Uganda.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory and qualitative research design was used to examine the role of social entrepreneurship in post conflict recovery in the Gulu community located in Uganda. A sample of five social entrepreneurs and 15 beneficiaries were interviewed.

Findings

The findings revealed that there is an association between active social entrepreneurship and post conflict recovery. Social entrepreneurship was found to create opportunity recognition, networking and innovation at both an individual and societal level.

Research limitations/implications

The generalization of the findings was limited by sample and method. A cross-sectional design that was used does not allow for a long-term impact study and limited empirical published research done.

Originality/value

This in-depth richness provides a clearer appreciation of the role social entrepreneurs’ play in post conflict recovery.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 14 October 2011

Edoardo Gianotti

The purpose of this study is to provide a reflective and evaluative review of photographic practice by the author on the topic of human rights violation/child labor…

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to provide a reflective and evaluative review of photographic practice by the author on the topic of human rights violation/child labor. Visual methods and collaboration with children's rights researchers and advocates produced work from four regions including Africa, South Asia, South America, and Northeastern Europe. The human rights framework of the ILO establishes child rights standards and this analysis discusses findings from the field, human rights implications, and raises the broad issue of social and professional responsibilities.

Details

Human Rights and Media
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-052-5

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