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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2019

Jochen Wirtz, Chiara Orsingher and Hichang Cho

This paper aims to examine the psychological consequences of a customer engagement initiative through referral reward programs (RRPs) in online versus offline environments.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the psychological consequences of a customer engagement initiative through referral reward programs (RRPs) in online versus offline environments.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a qualitative study followed by a scenario-based experimental study.

Findings

The authors show that recommenders’ concern about how they are viewed by recommendation recipients (i.e. their metaperception) mediates the effects of incentives on referral likelihood in both offline and online environments. However, metaperception has a stronger effect offline where recommenders show higher impression management concerns compared to online. Furthermore, tie-strength and communication environment moderate the effect of incentives on metaperception. When referrals are made to weak-ties, incentives decrease metaperception favorability offline more than online. For strong-ties, this effect is lower, and it is similar in offline and online environments.

Research limitations/implications

The study focused on an online versus offline dyadic communication and did not consider the differences among social media. Furthermore, the authors did not consider how other forms of positive metaperception, like being seen as helpful or knowledgeable, could be increased in an online incentivized referral context. It is possible that a recommender thinks others see him as more helpful or knowledgeable online because a lot more useful information and other resources could be offered here compared to offline communications.

Practical implications

The authors recommend managers to design both online and offline RRPs that minimize metaperception concerns; target strong ties in any communication environment as metaperception concerns are low; and target weak ties online where metaperception concerns are muted.

Originality/value

This work is the first to examine how recommenders’ psychological responses differ offline and online.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 53 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 November 2017

Chiara Orsingher and Jochen Wirtz

Empirical research presents conflicting findings with regards to the effectiveness of referral reward programs (RRPs) and supports two alternative and conflicting views on…

Abstract

Purpose

Empirical research presents conflicting findings with regards to the effectiveness of referral reward programs (RRPs) and supports two alternative and conflicting views on the effectiveness of incentivizing recommendations. They are, first, a positive effect via perceived attractiveness of the incentive, and second, a negative effect via metaperception of the recommendation. The purpose of this paper is to examine these two opposing psychological mechanisms to reconcile the conflicting findings.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted three experiments. Study 1 tests the base model. Studies 2 and 3 add moderators to test whether each mediating variable operates exclusively on its intended relationship.

Findings

Incentive size enhanced the attractiveness of an incentive, but reduced the metaperception favorability of the recommendation. These two opposing mechanisms operated in parallel, independently and fully mediated the effects of incentive size to likelihood of making a recommendation. Thus, the net impact of incentives on recommendation behavior depended on the relative strengths of these two opposing forces.

Practical implications

The study recommends managers to design RRPs with incentives that recommenders perceive as highly useful (i.e. to increase attractiveness) but have a low face value (i.e. to reduce metaperception concerns) and to target RRPs to strong rather than weak ties.

Originality/value

Our work offers an integrated theoretical account of consumers’ responses to incentivized recommendations and provides managerially relevant guidelines for the design of effective RRPs.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2018

Ruth N. Bolton, Janet R. McColl-Kennedy, Lilliemay Cheung, Andrew Gallan, Chiara Orsingher, Lars Witell and Mohamed Zaki

The purpose of this paper is to explore innovations in customer experience at the intersection of the digital, physical and social realms. It explicitly considers…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore innovations in customer experience at the intersection of the digital, physical and social realms. It explicitly considers experiences involving new technology-enabled services, such as digital twins and automated social presence (i.e. virtual assistants and service robots).

Design/methodology/approach

Future customer experiences are conceptualized within a three-dimensional space – low to high digital density, low to high physical complexity and low to high social presence – yielding eight octants.

Findings

The conceptual framework identifies eight “dualities,” or specific challenges connected with integrating digital, physical and social realms that challenge organizations to create superior customer experiences in both business-to-business and business-to-consumer markets. The eight dualities are opposing strategic options that organizations must reconcile when co-creating customer experiences under different conditions.

Research limitations/implications

A review of theory demonstrates that little research has been conducted at the intersection of the digital, physical and social realms. Most studies focus on one realm, with occasional reference to another. This paper suggests an agenda for future research and gives examples of fruitful ways to study connections among the three realms rather than in a single realm.

Practical implications

This paper provides guidance for managers in designing and managing customer experiences that the authors believe will need to be addressed by the year 2050.

Social implications

This paper discusses important societal issues, such as individual and societal needs for privacy, security and transparency. It sets out potential avenues for service innovation in these areas.

Originality/value

The conceptual framework integrates knowledge about customer experiences in digital, physical and social realms in a new way, with insights for future service research, managers and public policy makers.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 16 October 2007

Sylvie Llosa and Chiara Orsingher

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

Content available
Article
Publication date: 19 June 2009

Sylvie Llosa, Kiane Goudarzi and Chiara Orsingher

Abstract

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 October 2011

Kiane Goudarzi, Sylvie Llosa and Chiara Orsingher

Abstract

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Content available

Abstract

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Lerzan Aksoy, Jens Hogreve, Bart Lariviere, Andrea Ordanini and Chiara Orsingher

The purpose of this paper is to introduce an alternative novel approach to measurement of customer perceptions of the service experience that links closely with customer…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce an alternative novel approach to measurement of customer perceptions of the service experience that links closely with customer loyalty outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

This conceptual paper draws upon prior theory and empirical research to investigate the relevance of using relative metrics compared to absolute metrics in service research.

Findings

The findings upon which this paper draws upon show that measuring customer satisfaction, likelihood to recommend, brand preference using absolute metrics explain a very small per cent of the variance in key customer outcome measures such as share of wallet. Instead, a relative approach to these and other measures in service research is proposed.

Practical implications

Although business practice has embraced relative measurement much more extensively than has scientific research, the vast majority of customer experience measurement programs today continue to employ absolute measures resulting in suboptimal allocation of firm resources. This paper is a call to rethink these current measurement practices.

Originality/value

It is one of the first papers to argue for changing the widely employed use of absolute metrics in theory and practice in favor of relative metrics. Application to other service research theories is discussed.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 29 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

Chiara Orsingher, Jens Hogreve and Andrea Ordanini

– The purpose of this paper is to offer a reflection on the role that meta-analysis can play in theory building for service phenomena.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to offer a reflection on the role that meta-analysis can play in theory building for service phenomena.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper illustrates the benefits of conducting meta-analysis, presents its basic steps, and then uses an example to illustrate how meta-analytic findings can be used to enrich and develop theory.

Findings

Meta-analytic findings allow identifying gaps in current theories, thereby offering the opportunity to develop new research. Theoretical advancement through meta-analysis can imply theory borrowing, mutual theoretical development with other disciplines, intradisciplinary and multidisciplinary theorizing.

Practical implications

Experienced researchers might use this essay to better understand how meta-analysis can be used to generate new relevant research. Young researchers and PhD students may benefit from a greater use of meta-analysis to gain a thorough knowledge of their research topic and about the areas that require further exploration.

Originality/value

Rather than thinking of meta-analysis mainly as the conclusion of a well-researched domain and a good summary of cites, this essay underlines to the service scholar community how meta-analysis can boost theoretical advancement in services.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2007

Gilles N'Goala

This research attempts to understand why – or why not – customers resist switching service providers when a critical incident occurs. The paper examines how service…

Abstract

Purpose

This research attempts to understand why – or why not – customers resist switching service providers when a critical incident occurs. The paper examines how service relationship perceptions, such as perceived equity, trust (perceived reliability and benevolence) and relationship commitment (affective and calculative), enhance relationship maintenance and CSR in many critical situations.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was conducted in the financial service industry on a sample of 1,999 consumers (retail banking) and then conceptualized and measured CSR in several critical situations.

Findings

The paper demonstrates that perceived equity, perceived reliability, perceived benevolence, affective commitment, and calculative commitment do not influence CSR the same way. CSR mainly depends on the type of critical incident which occurs. For instance, calculative commitment, which is an evaluation of the costs associated with leaving the service provider, enhances CSR in three critical situations (service encounter failures, employee responses to service failures, pricing problems), whereas it leads to relationship disengagement in two other critical situations (inconvenience, changes in the consumer or service provider situation).

Research limitations/implications

This research highlights the need to better take into account the different types of critical incident discussed in the relationship marketing literature and to better consider the complementary roles of perceived equity, trust and relationship commitment in the service switching literature.

Originality/value

This research implies that service companies have to anticipate the critical incidents and to develop specific “shock absorbers” to continue doing business with their current customers.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

Keywords

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