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Article

Chhotu Ram, Chhaya Sharma and A K Singh

– This paper aims to report on corrosivity of secondary-stage paper mill effluent and corrosion performance of stainless steels.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to report on corrosivity of secondary-stage paper mill effluent and corrosion performance of stainless steels.

Design/methodology/approach

For this purpose, immersion test and electrochemical polarization tests were conducted in mill and synthetic effluent to evaluate the uniform and localized corrosion.

Findings

Corrosivity of mill effluent has been compared with synthetic and primary-stage effluent of the same mill. It is observed that anions present in them, viz. SO4−, PO34−, NO2− and NO3−, impart inhibition, whereas Cl− and chlorophenols enhance the corrosivity of the effluent. The overall effect of various components was reduction in corrosivity of secondary mill effluent.

Originality/value

These observations can be useful for material selection and helpful in corrosion mitigation in paper mill effluent treatment plants.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 62 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article

Ajay Singh, Chhaya Sharma and Suman Lata

The purpose of this paper is to investigate microbially induced corrosion on stainless steels due to sulfate reducing bacteria sp. Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate microbially induced corrosion on stainless steels due to sulfate reducing bacteria sp. Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and correlate it with the composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of the biofilm formed by these bacteria.

Design/methodology/approach

Stainless steels 304L, 316L and 2205 were selected for the test. Modified Baar's media, both control and inoculated, were used as test solutions in anaerobic conditions. The bacteria were identified by scanning electron microscopy and their growth was estimated by bacterial counting. Electrochemical polarization and immersion test were performed to estimate the corrosion rate and the extent of pitting attack. The degree of corrosion and the presence of chemicals present inside/outside pits were determined by SEM/EDS. Biofilm formed on corroded coupons was analyzed spectroscopically to identify its components. An attempt was made to correlate the extent of corrosion with the bacterial concentration and the EPS of the biofilm. The differing corrosion performances of the stainless steels also were compared.

Findings

The corrosivity of the solution increased with the addition of SRBs and with increased incubation time. The amount of carbohydrate and protein in EPS was observed to be a minimum when conditions were most corrosive. However, as the corrosivity decreased, these amounts increased. Stainless steel 2205 showed the highest corrosion resistance, followed by 316L and 304L.

Originality/value

This work shows that SRB degrades its own EPS. Further, the extent of microbial corrosion on stainless steel coupons due to the presence of SRB correlates with the carbohydrate and protein contents of the EPS of the biofilm.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 58 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article

Amarveer Singh Mangat, Sunpreet Singh, Munish Gupta and Ravinder Sharma

The purpose of this paper is to explore and investigate the mechanical as well as bacterial characteristics of chemically treated waste natural fiber inserted…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore and investigate the mechanical as well as bacterial characteristics of chemically treated waste natural fiber inserted three-dimensional structures (NFi3DS) produced with fused filament deposition (FFD) for biomedical applications.

Design/methodology/approach

In this work, a novel approach has been used for developing the customized porous structures particularly for scaffold applications. Initially, raw animal fibers were collected, and thereafter, the chemical treatment has been performed for making their wise utility in biomedical structures. For this purpose, silk fiber and sheep wool fibers were used as laminations, whereas polylactic acid was used as matrix material. A low-cost desktop time additive manufacturing setup was used for making the customized and porous parts by considering type of fiber, number of laminates, infill density and raster angle as input parameters.

Findings

The results obtained after using design of experimental technique highlighted that output characteristics (such as dimensional accuracy, hardness, three-point bending strength and bacterial test) are influenced by input parameters, as reported in the obtained signal/noise plots and analysis of variance. Optimum level of input parameters has also been found through Taguchi L9 orthogonal array, for single parametric optimization, and teaching learning-based algorithm and particle swarm optimization, for multiple parametric optimization. Overall, the results of the studies supported the use of embedded structures for scaffold-based biomedical applications.

Research limitations/implications

Presently, NFi3DS were produced by using the hand-lay-based manual approach that affected the uniform insert’s distribution and thickness. It is advised to use the automatic fiber placement system, synced with a three-dimensional printer, to achieve greater geometrical precision.

Practical implications

As both natural fibers and polymer matrix used in this work are well established for their biological properties, hence the methodology explored in this work will help the practitioners/academicians in developing highly compatible scaffold structures.

Social implications

The present work defines a new practice where the researchers can use natural fibers to reduce the cost associated with fabrication of customized scaffold prints.

Originality/value

The development of natural fiber embedded FFD-based structures is not yet explored for their feasibility in biomedical applications.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article

Thinles Chondol, Ashish Kumar Panda, Anil Kumar Gupta, Nirupama Agrawal and Amarjeet Kaur

This paper aims to gain insight on the perception and role of the local government officials on climate change and resilience in Uttarakhand, India. Uttarakhand, being a…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to gain insight on the perception and role of the local government officials on climate change and resilience in Uttarakhand, India. Uttarakhand, being a sensitive mountainous region in India, faces the brunt of frequent climate-related disasters and their severe impacts. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how authorities perceive the issue of climate-related disasters and their level of commitment toward mitigation and adaptation programs.

Design/methodology/approach

The literature review method was used for a holistic understanding of the impact of climate change and consequential disasters. A questionnaire survey method, comprising open- and closed-ended questions, was also used on officials of different departments.

Findings

Among the noteworthy findings of the study include the understanding of the perceptions of authorities and their role in decision-making on mitigating impacts of climate change-related disasters, their support or lack of it, for measures toward capacity building and spreading awareness of the intervention programs by the government. The study analyzes the perception of decision-making officials at state and district levels and infers that the variation on opinions may be attributable to multiple factors, including their past experiences of dealing with disasters.

Originality/value

This study offers insights into the role of perception of local government officials concerning climate change-related disasters and alleviation of their consequences through related programs. The findings have the unique potential to serve as a guide for the government at state and district levels to assess various aspects of different disaster mitigation measures based on sectors and departments.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

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