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Research into stress among teachers in the UK has indicated genderdifferences relating to the levels and types of stress experienced. Theresults of a study employing two…
Research into stress among teachers in the UK has indicated gender differences relating to the levels and types of stress experienced. The results of a study employing two types of measurement: semi‐structured interviews and an in‐depth postal questionnaire of 1,790 teachers is reported. The study focused on: the different career patterns of male and female teachers; the respective levels of education; the distribution in primary and secondary schools; and acquisition of incentive allowances; and the under‐representation of women at managerial levels. The results revealed that female teachers are not realising the levels of seniority, salary and responsibility of their male colleagues, and that levels of stress and satisfaction differ according to gender. Of major importance was the finding that both male and female teachers are reporting higher levels of stress symptoms than those of comparable occupational groups.
Since 1990 the National Health Service (NHS) has undergone a sustained period of change. This change has been necessary to prepare the NHS for the task of meeting a demand…
Since 1990 the National Health Service (NHS) has undergone a sustained period of change. This change has been necessary to prepare the NHS for the task of meeting a demand for services that continues to rise more rapidly than the availability of resources. Anecdotal evidence suggests that one of the most popular ways for trusts to improve their ability to meet demand is through mergers with other trusts. However, little rigorous research has been conducted to assess the extent or effectiveness of this strategy. A research project was, therefore, initiated to better understand the extent and impact of merger activity within the NHS. A questionnaire was developed and distributed to the chief executive, finance director, medical director and human resources director in all the 460 trusts that are currently members of the NHS confederation. In total the survey generated 459 responses out of a possible total of 1,840; an encouraging response rate of 25 per cent. The results of this research provide significant new evidence that “merger mania” has taken hold within the NHS. While 46 per cent of all responding trusts indicated that they had already merged, are actively involved in a merger, proposing to merge or are talking to prospective partners, a further 18.7 per cent of all trusts are forming strategic alliances rather than opting for a full merger. The dominant justification for merging are the beliefs that it will facilitate the reconfiguration of services and ultimately improve patient care. The paper concludes with a discussion of the significance of these results, before making recommendations with regard to their implications for future merger activity within the NHS.
Volume 64 Part 4 of the Journal of Occupational Psychology includes an article by Hazel M. Rosin and Karen Korabik entitled “Workplace variables, affective responses, and intention to leave among women managers”.
Networking is increasingly being seen as a crucial skill associated with career success. Presents the findings of a study into the attitudes towards networking of a sample…
Networking is increasingly being seen as a crucial skill associated with career success. Presents the findings of a study into the attitudes towards networking of a sample of women from the UK, Spain and the USA. A prior questionnaire‐based study of members’ needs, perceptions and expectations with the European Women’s Management Development Network suggested some cross‐cultural differences in networking attitudes and behaviours. In order to investigate these further, the questionnaire used was further developed and distributed to women’s networks within the USA, UK and Spain. The results indicate differences between the three countries in terms of a whole range of networking issues, leading to the categorization of American women as instrumentalists, UK women as developers, and Spanish women as socialites. Discusses the importance of developing a further understanding of networking practices and motives across cultures and suggests further research.
Looks at the effect of modern empowerment policies on middle management. The transition of middle managers from technical experts to coaches, and the position at the…
Looks at the effect of modern empowerment policies on middle management. The transition of middle managers from technical experts to coaches, and the position at the sharpest point of conflict between senior management and employees, means that empowerment often requires middle management to implement a policy which threatens their own jobs. Based on 28 management interviews and five focus groups held within two large UK organizations between 1995‐1996, this research seeks to to answer three central questions: How does empowerment affect middle managers? What coping mechanisms do they use? What are the implications for the organizations? The results show that, in line with previous literature, managers are resisting empowerment policies to some extent. However, the added fear of redundancy among middle managers means that they are, to varying extents, beginning to “act” their compliance to empowerment affecting the ultimate success of such initiatives.
This chapter presents a brief overview of education in Brazil and discusses the potential of creating animations, which are an excellent way of storytelling, in learning…
This chapter presents a brief overview of education in Brazil and discusses the potential of creating animations, which are an excellent way of storytelling, in learning situations. The work addresses the importance of creative and artistic pedagogies in education and teacher education. The importance of Freire’s philosophy is emphasized and the discussion adds to what is known about working in situations involving material and economic constraints.
This paper, and the corresponding project, is motivated by the lack of qualitative research elucidating the voices of young Black women in Canada when it comes to their…
This paper, and the corresponding project, is motivated by the lack of qualitative research elucidating the voices of young Black women in Canada when it comes to their sexual health.
This paper draws from data produced in the Let’s Talk About Sex (LTAS) project – a Photovoice process held once a week for nine consecutive weeks in the Jane-Finch community, a low-income community in Toronto, Canada. This workshop was completed by 15 young African Caribbean and Black (ACB) women in the age group 14–18. These young women used photography and creative writing to express their opinions on the barriers and facilitators to making healthy sexual decisions.
A central finding was the existence of a subculture among youth in Toronto, where the exchange of sex for material resources was commonplace. Herein, we unpack the various forms of economically motivated relationships reported, which ranged from romantic relationships to sugar daddies and brothel-like sex dens. We also reflect on the discussions at community forums where the research findings were presented. From shock and outrage to a sly smile of knowing, the responses were often gendered, generational and reflective of a trend occurring across Toronto, not just in the Jane-Finch community, and not merely among the Black youth.
Effective interventions and youth programs should focus on the sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV risks that may result from transactional relationships, economic empowerment, and youth employment.
This is a novel arts-based study on youth engaged inthe exchange of sex for money, which has nuanced differences from survival sex.
The role of women in Europe Volume 97, Number 2 of European Business Review includes an article with this title by Marilyn M. Helms and Cynthia J. Guffey. They argue that with major events including the European Economic Community, German unification and the fall of the former Soviet Union, there is an increased reality of a large united Europe. With these societal and political changes comes change in the role of women. As the number of women entering the labour market increased, the effect of job equality must be investigated. Examines the role of women in the European workforce. Discusses areas such as promotion, mentoring, education, compensation and reform recommendations. Shows that four key economic, demographic, and organisational trends are creating positive effects for women in the European labour force.