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Research in the field of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has grown exponentially in the last few decades. Nevertheless, significant debate remains about the…
Research in the field of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has grown exponentially in the last few decades. Nevertheless, significant debate remains about the relationship between CSR performance and corporate financial performance (CFP). This is particularly true for the case of Chinese state-owned enterprises (SOEs). The purpose of the current study is to empirically test the relationship between CSR and CFP. We use data for 66 Chinese SOEs listed on the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges. The results are interesting in that they are not consistent with similar studies using US and other Western market data. We find a significant negative relationship between CSR performance and CFP. The results are discussed in light of the preferential government treatment afforded to Chinese SOEs, and social welfare requirements imposed on such entities. Implications for Chinese policy-makers are discussed.
The purpose of this paper is to reduce the drag loss and study the effects of operating conditions and groove parameters such as flow rate and temperature of automatic…
The purpose of this paper is to reduce the drag loss and study the effects of operating conditions and groove parameters such as flow rate and temperature of automatic transmission fluid, clearance between plates, groove depth and groove ratio on the drag torque of a wet clutch for vehicles, parametric analysis of the drag torque model of wet multi-plate friction clutch with groove consideration.
Both experimental and numerical research was carried out in this work. Parametric groove models, full film lubrication flow model and pressure distribution model are established to investigate the effects of the grooves on drag torque of a wet clutch. Multigrid method is used to simplify the solution.
In this paper, a drag torque model of a wet multi-plate friction clutch based on the basic theory of viscous fluid dynamics is examined through experimental and numerical methods that take grooves into account, and the change trend of drag torque with operating conditions and groove parameters is analyzed.
Multigrid method is used to solve the governing equations, which simplifies the solution process because of the restrictions and interpolation operations between the adjacent layers of coarser and fine grids. These works provide insight into the effect regularity of operating conditions and groove parameters on drag torque of a wet multi-plate friction clutch. Furthermore, variable test conditions and sufficient experimental data are the main functions in the experimental research.
The purpose of this paper is to conduct the synthesization of LiFePO4-C (LFP-C) with fine particle size and enhanced electrochemical performance as the positive electrode…
The purpose of this paper is to conduct the synthesization of LiFePO4-C (LFP-C) with fine particle size and enhanced electrochemical performance as the positive electrode material for Li-ion capacitors (LICs) with neutral aqueous electrolyte.
LFP-C was prepared by using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a grain growth inhibitor, and the effects of the calcination temperature and PEG content on the structure and morphology of LFP-C were investigated. LICs using environment-friendly, safe and low-cost LiNO3 aqueous electrolyte were assembled with LFP-C as the positive electrode and active carbon as the negative electrode. The electrochemical performances of LFP-C and LICs were studied.
The results show that the particle size of LFP-C decreases significantly through the introduction of PEG. Cyclic voltammetry results show that the LFP-C prepared at 550°C with 1.0 g PEG exhibits the highest Cpe of 725 F/g at the scanning rate of 5 mA/s. Compared to LFP prepared without PEG, the electrochemical performance of optimized LFP-C dramatically increases due to the decrease of the particle size. Moreover, the LIC assembled with the optimized LFP-C exhibits excellent electrochemical performances. The LIC maintains about 91.3 per cent of its initial Cps after 200 cycles which shows a good cycling performance.
The LFP-C is the suitable positive electrode material for LICs with neutral aqueous electrolyte. LICs can be used in the field of automobiles and can solve the problems of energy shortage and environmental pollution.
Both the LFP-C with fine particle size and its optimal LIC using environment-friendly, safe and low-cost LiNO3 aqueous electrolyte own good electrochemical performances.