Intermediary firms are economic agents that purchase from mostlysmall and numerous independent producers and sell to other firms or tothe public. This article investigated…
Intermediary firms are economic agents that purchase from mostly small and numerous independent producers and sell to other firms or to the public. This article investigated how intermediary firms can optimally determine both selling quantity and purchasing price of a product. By incorporating the special structure of intermediary firms′ environments and by modifying the conventional economic order quantity (EOQ) model accordingly, we provide optimal decision rules regarding the selling quantity and purchasing price for intermediary firms under profit maximisation.
Driving cycle is an essential requirement to evaluate the exhaust emissions of various types of vehicles on the chassis dynamometer test. This study presents a real world…
Driving cycle is an essential requirement to evaluate the exhaust emissions of various types of vehicles on the chassis dynamometer test. This study presents a real world comparison of the driving cycles of Edinburgh motorcycles in two world cities; Edinburgh in Scotland and Delhi in India. The two driving cycles (EMDC & DMDC) driving cycle (EMDC) that were was developed through the analysis of experimental data. This data was collected from trips on a number of routes in each city. In Edinburgh, five different routes between the home addresses in the surrounding areas and place of work at Edinburgh Napier University in Edinburgh were selected. In Delhi data were collected in East Delhi (Geeta Calony) to Central Delhi (Raisena Road). The data collected data was divided into two categories of urban and rural roads in the case of Edinburgh while it was only the urban route in Delhi.. Forty four trips were made on the five designated routes in both urban and rural areas and 12 trips were made in Delhi. The aims of the study were to assess the various parameters (i.e. motorcycle speed, cruise, accelerations and decelerations and percentage time spent in idling) and their statistical validity over total trip lengths for producing a real world EMDC in each of the two cities. The results show that EMDC in Edinburgh, the EMDC has a cycle length of 770 and 656 seconds for urban and rural trips, respectively, which was found more than ECE cycle length. Time spent in acceleration and deceleration modes were found to be significantly higher than any other driving cycle reported to date for motorcycles, reflecting a typical characteristic of the driving cycle in Edinburgh; this was presumably due to diverse driving conditions of motorcycles in the city. In Delhi on the other hand, the DMDC has a cycle length of 847.5 seconds for the urban trips, which higher than that of the EMDC length. The overall percentage time spent in acceleration in Delhi was higher than that of Edinburgh while the time spent in deceleration was lower in Delhi. The overall average speed in the case of Delhi was slightly higher than that of Edinburgh.
The purpose of this study is to present a simplified analytical method to estimate ground lateral displacement due to excavation. Excavations of foundation pit will…
The purpose of this study is to present a simplified analytical method to estimate ground lateral displacement due to excavation. Excavations of foundation pit will inevitably lead to soil movements that may adversely impact surrounding facilities or structures. Thus, estimation of the ground displacement induced by excavation is essential in engineering practice.
Based on a theory of elastic mechanics, a simplified analytical method for predicting the ground lateral displacement resulting from foundation pit excavation is proposed.
As the distance from the soil to the supporting structure increases, the maximum ground lateral displacement decreases nonlinearly but at a reduced rate. Poisson’s ratio of soil has a mild influence on the ground lateral displacement, whereas the influence of the supporting structure’s deflection modes is significant.
The advantage of the proposed simplified analytical method lies in that it considers the supporting structure’s arbitrary deflections, giving it wider practical applicability than previous methods.
Deep excavation in soft clay often causes additional deformations to surroundings. Then, if deformations cannot be predicted reasonably, the adjacent buildings may be…
Deep excavation in soft clay often causes additional deformations to surroundings. Then, if deformations cannot be predicted reasonably, the adjacent buildings may be threatened by the deep excavation. Based on the good field observations from ten deep excavations in Hangzhou, this paper aims to thoroughly investigate the characteristics of wall deflections and ground settlements induced by deep excavations.
On the basis of good field observation of ten deep excavations, the performances of excavations, supported by contiguous pile in Hangzhou, were studied, and also compared with other case histories.
The maximum wall deflections (dhm) rang mostly from 0.7 to 1.2 per cent He, where He is the final excavation depth, larger than those in Taipei and Shanghai. The observed maximum ground settlement in the Hangzhou cases generally ranges from 0.2 to 0.8 per cent He. Then, the settlement influence zone extends to a distance of 2.0-4.0 He from the excavation. The relatively large movements and influence zones in Hangzhou may be attributed to low stability numbers, large excavation widths and the creep effect. The excavation width is justified to have a significant influence on the wall deflection. Therefore, to establish a semi-empirical formula for predicting the maximum wall deflection, it is necessary to include the factor of excavation width.
The relevant literature concentrated on the characteristics of deep excavations supported by the contiguous pile wall in Hangzhou soft clay can rarely be found. Based on the ten deep excavations with good field observation in Hangzhou, the characteristics of wall deflection and ground settlements were comprehensively studied for the first time, which can provide some theoretical support for similar projects.