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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2006

Charlotte Gaston‐Breton

Because its actual impact is still rather blurred, the euro brings up many questions among managers as well as gives rise to much marketing research. This paper aims…

Abstract

Purpose

Because its actual impact is still rather blurred, the euro brings up many questions among managers as well as gives rise to much marketing research. This paper aims specifically to assess and measure the impact of the euro on the consumer decision process.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper first expounds the theory that the currency changeover creates a cognitive and visual bias. Then it moves on to give experimental evidence with a sample of 800 real buyers that, in the French context, the euro currency creates a bias on the different stages of the decision process.

Findings

Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) reveals that euro prices influence the treatment of price information, price perception and, to a more marginal extent, the perception of product value. Individual factors, such as increased experience with the euro, moderate judgmental bias strength.

Practical implications

The results bring out the face value effect of prices, which shows that when unsure of actual price value the consumers turn to nominal value as an anchor for evaluating prices. This paper identifies implications for retailers who have to watch both the overall price range of the items they offer and the price positioning of their own brands in euros and implications for public authorities who have to force consumers to replace price references in the old currency with references in euros.

Originality/value

This research brings out the “magical” or “illusory” effects of prices, while there is only very scant academic evidence available.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2011

Charlotte Gaston‐Breton and Oscar Martín Martín

The purpose of this paper is to present a two‐stage international market selection and segmentation model addressed to help decision makers such as foreign institutions…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a two‐stage international market selection and segmentation model addressed to help decision makers such as foreign institutions and market‐seeking multinational enterprises (MNEs) identify and select the most suitable European countries and groups of consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

The first stage is conceived as a macro‐segmentation screening process based on market attractiveness. The second is a micro‐segmentation process addressed to identify which groups of people are most similar across Europe in terms of social and personal values. The authors' model is rooted in previous assumptions and findings from international market selection (IMS) and Inglehart's theory of material and post‐material values.

Findings

The model is applied to the current 27 European Union (EU) member states and is validated through the groups of countries empirically obtained. The model allows us to cluster the European countries by market attractiveness, group the European consumers by personal and social values and describe the value orientation of the resulting clusters.

Research limitations/implications

The authors used cross‐sectional data to validate their model. Among the implications, they encourage international marketing and business scholars to make use of Inglehart's framework.

Practical implications

Institutional decision makers and market‐seeking MNEs can follow or adapt the prescribed model in order to identify the most promising and similar European countries and groups of consumers. Public policy makers can gain an in‐depth understanding of specific personal and social values allowing them to shape public policy agendas.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the existing literature on IMS and segmentation in three ways: it proposes an original and parsimonious two‐stage IMS and segmentation integrative model for both country‐level and consumer‐related analyses (suitable to handle and reduce the European diversity that decision makers have to face when dealing with the general public or consumer products); it applies theoretically grounded general segmentation bases and an alternative established framework of consumer values (Inglehart's value system), and it adopts an updated and pan‐European perspective over the enlarged EU.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Charlotte Gaston-Breton and Lola C. Duque

This paper aims to explore not only the utilitarian but also the hedonic persuasive effects of promotional techniques like 99-ending prices and the influence of consumers…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore not only the utilitarian but also the hedonic persuasive effects of promotional techniques like 99-ending prices and the influence of consumers’ decision style when evaluating these appeals. Evidence suggests that retailers use 99-ending prices as a promotional technique, based mostly on its savings appeal.

Design/methodology/approach

Three complementary studies were performed. A first field study among 317 shoppers allows to test the hypotheses for two groups of decision-makers (intuitive and analytical) using structural equation modeling based on the partial least squares algorithm. Then, a laboratory experiment assigned to 123 respondents manipulates the decision-making style and, in turn, tests more precisely the proposed hypotheses. Finally, the third study replicates the laboratory experiment with 104 respondents without manipulating decision-making; rather it is measured, which allows to test the effect of internal-based versus contextual-based decision style.

Findings

First, the 99-ends are not strictly associated to utilitarian benefits (savings, quality or convenience) but also to hedonic benefits fulfilling consumer’s needs for exploration, value expression and entertainment. Second, a better understanding of the moderating role of the decision-making style is obtained: consumers in an intuitive decision mode give importance only to hedonic benefits; and there are differences in the analytical decision mode: when the decision-making style is internal (measured as a personal trait), consumers give importance to both utilitarian and hedonic benefits; however, when the decision-making style is contextual (manipulated), consumers focus only on utilitarian benefits.

Research limitations/implications

It is necessary to check the robustness of the results depending on other marketing variables (e.g. product category knowledge, purchase frequency) and individual consumers’ differences in price-sensitivity (e.g. price consciousness).

Practical implications

The findings help to better understand the image effect of 99-ends underlying both consumers’ individual differences and contextual effects. Findings also help retailers and pricing managers in their use of 99-ends as a promotional technique.

Originality/value

This research contributes to a better understanding of the persuasive promotional effect associated to 99-ends. The study demonstrates that utilitarian benefits cannot fully explain consumers’ responses to 99-ends, as 99-end prices can also provide stimulation, entertainment and help fulfill consumers’ needs for information, exploration and self-esteem. The authors further examine the moderating role of the decision-making style between promotional benefits and proneness to buy 99-ends products. The intuitive mode, either internal or contextual, activates hedonic benefits, whereas the analytical mode activates both utilitarian and hedonic benefits when the mode of processing is internal and only utilitarian benefits when the mode of processing is contextual.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 49 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 26 October 2012

Abstract

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 26 April 2011

Nicolas Papadopoulos and Oscar Martín Martín

This paper has two overall goals. The first is to serve as a broad overview of the literature on the subject theme, with three main objectives in mind: to highlight the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper has two overall goals. The first is to serve as a broad overview of the literature on the subject theme, with three main objectives in mind: to highlight the complexities of international market selection or segmentation as a field of study and as a strategic decision by international firms; to explore the various ways and perspectives from which this area has been studied; and to suggest areas for future research by drawing on the preceding discussion. The second goal of the paper is to act as an introduction to the IMR special issue on the title theme, by outlining the special issue's objectives and the contributions to it.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on the relevant literatures, the paper begins by outlining the factors that make the field complex in both theoretical and applied terms, moves to consider the research streams that comprise its main components, and concludes by drawing conclusions and implications for future research.

Findings

A large part of the complexity characterizing this field arises from the fact that it is closely intertwined with the broader area of internationalization and a number of other decisions related to it, such as the “go/no‐go” decision and the firm's choice of mode of entry. From the research perspective, theory development has been impeded by a high degree of fragmentation, which has resulted in various different streams studying the same general issues from widely different perspectives.

Research limitations/implications

The paper identifies a large number of directions for potential future research, not the least of which is the need for integrative research that addresses the fragmentation identified in the study.

Practical implications

Although this is primarily a theoretical paper directed at researchers, practitioners can gain useful insights from it by examining the various factors that have a bearing on their internationalization decisions.

Originality/value

The objectives of the main part of the paper will have been met if it succeeds in stimulating interest in further research and discussion on the core issues. The second part summarizes the contributions to the special issue and draws attention to the main message that each aims to convey.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2019

Sangeeta Singh and Lola C. Duque

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate cause-related marketing (CRM) promotions as a brand-oriented international market entry strategy that can leverage an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate cause-related marketing (CRM) promotions as a brand-oriented international market entry strategy that can leverage an unfamiliar brand in a new international market. One of the challenges CRM promotions face is skepticism toward the campaign and for that reason, many brands form alliances with well-known charities familiar to the consumer, hoping that the trust and goodwill generated by the charity will be transferred to the brand. The authors manipulate price and donation presentation formats to show an alternative means for overcoming skepticism.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is undertaken in two studies. Study 1 uses a sample collected on Amazon’s MTurk, whereas study 2 is undertaken in the real world with participants from Norway. Analysis of variance and partial least square are, respectively, used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The first study shows that presenting the donation explicitly vis-à-vis the price makes a less familiar charity produce the same trustworthy effects as that a well-known one does. Moreover, the second study shows that it strengthens utility from the transaction and weakens skepticism of CRM promotions to impact brand evaluations.

Research limitations/implications

The primary focus of the research was consumers’ familiarity with the charity but other variables could have a significant impact in judgments. For instance, the importance consumers attach to the cause that the charity supports, spatial distance of the brand and charity, brand familiarity. Manipulating these in future studies would not only contribute to the CRM literature but also to that of international marketing.

Practical implications

Firms in international markets can derive competitive advantages with the help of CRM campaigns. Moreover, alliances with familiar charities that are local can help combat nationalistic feelings prevalent in many markets. The separated presentation format can also help overcome some of the additional skepticism found in international markets.

Social implications

The findings support the Better Business Bureau’s Standards for Charity Accountability that seek transparency in communicating CRM promotions. The explicit presentation of price and donation, in addition to providing this transparency, also gives consumers a clear understanding of the CRM promotions’ details, which will increase their self-efficacy in making more informed decisions.

Originality/value

This research contributes to strengthening knowledge on donation-price formats, offers brands entering international markets a singular way of gaining credibility and competitive advantage, and empirically confirms the proposed outcomes of a theoretical model for promotions.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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