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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2001

Elliott Jaques, Charlotte Bygrave and Nancy Lee

The time horizons for setting out strategic plans have never been established in principle, and hence vary widely over one, two, three, five, ten, fifteen, twenty years…

Abstract

The time horizons for setting out strategic plans have never been established in principle, and hence vary widely over one, two, three, five, ten, fifteen, twenty years and more. This paper presents a total system of planning horizons at one, three, seven, twelve and twenty‐five years. Each time horizon is linked to a specific organizational layer. The larger the organization, the longer is the top‐level planning horizon. The larger time horizons encompass the shorter, so that, for example, the CEO of a large corporation can set the corporate strategic plan in terms of a 25‐year plan, with corporate strategic milestones at twelve years, seven years, three years and one year. Every subordinate function can be planned in the same way.

Details

The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

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Book part
Publication date: 11 July 2018

Cina van Zyl

This chapter deals with the process perspective of entrepreneurship, that is, what prospective entrepreneurs should do and how they do it (the processes they use) to…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter deals with the process perspective of entrepreneurship, that is, what prospective entrepreneurs should do and how they do it (the processes they use) to launch a new venture in the tourism field. The main purpose of this chapter is to explain what the entrepreneurial process is, the steps/phases to transit from idea to enterprise and the risks involved.

Methodology/approach

General review was conducted on conceptual issues and managerial aspects of the entrepreneurial process and legal issues.

Findings

This chapter highlights that the entrepreneurial process undergone by entrepreneurs is dual in nature, both in terms of action and thinking process. Given that the failure rate of new ventures is high, there is a need to focus on the importance of understanding the dynamics of entrepreneurship, the action process of the prospective entrepreneur and the potential risk impact.

Research limitations/implications

This chapter is explorative in nature because the discussion is based on a general review.

Practical implications

Prospective entrepreneurs should follow specific steps, a rational process to establish their business venture and to protect its operations against any event. Thus, any new business should manage risks appropriately, as well as record insurance to cover for unforeseen events.

Originality/value

This chapter provides an overview of the entrepreneurial process and legal risk issues that may affect the success of a new venture. The hands-on approach is particularly useful in dealing with the entrepreneurial mind when exploring new business ventures in the tourism field.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Entrepreneurship in Tourism, Travel and Hospitality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-529-2

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2002

Allison W. Pearson, Michael D. Ensley and Allen C. Amason

Jehn (1992, 1994) developed the Intragroup Conflict Scale (ICS) to measure two theoretically distinct dimensions of conflict: relationship and task conflict. In the years…

Abstract

Jehn (1992, 1994) developed the Intragroup Conflict Scale (ICS) to measure two theoretically distinct dimensions of conflict: relationship and task conflict. In the years since, the ICS has been widely adopted by researchers as a measurement tool for group conflict. However, limited evidence of the scale's psychometric properties has been published. Following guidelines provided by Schwab (1980) and Hinkin (1995), we assess the construct validity of the scale, using both individual level and group level techniques, and test proposed nomological relationships, using six diverse samples. We conclude that a 6‐item version of the original 9‐item scale best captures relationship and task conflict.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 22 May 2007

Harry Matlay and Charlotte Carey

This paper sets out to critically evaluate contemporary entrepreneurship education initiatives in the UK. The authors seek to compare and contrast various entrepreneurship…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper sets out to critically evaluate contemporary entrepreneurship education initiatives in the UK. The authors seek to compare and contrast various entrepreneurship education methods, approaches and curricula as well as relevant outcomes, in the UK context.

Design/methodology/approach

Longitudinal case studies were used, over a ten‐year period (1995‐2004), to analyse in‐depth qualitative data relating to the development and implementation of various approaches to entrepreneurship education, in a sample of 40 new and established universities in the UK.

Findings

A number of interesting findings have emerged from this longitudinal study. It appears that conceptual and contextual as well as design and delivery factors can impact significantly upon entrepreneurship education courses developed in UK HEIs. Furthermore, a number of actual and perceived barriers needed to be overcome or mitigated in order to facilitate a better understanding of stakeholder needs and contributions.

Practical implications

Measuring the outcomes of entrepreneurship education in the UK is still proving ellusive. This study provides a longitudinal overview of current entrepreneurship education initiatives in order to gain a better understanding of the scope and limitations of this type of educational programme.

Originality/value

This paper presents an empirically rigorous, longitudinal case study approach to a rapidly growing aspect of higher education in the UK. The richness of the emergent data offers a valuable insight into pertinent aspects of entrepreneurship education and stakeholder needs and contributions.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 23 December 2010

Charlotte Norrman and Magnus Klofsten

In the international arena, there is an ongoing debate over the lack of newly started businesses in general and over how to obtain sustainable growth in these businesses…

Abstract

In the international arena, there is an ongoing debate over the lack of newly started businesses in general and over how to obtain sustainable growth in these businesses in particular. Policy-makers in Europe have sought to ease this problem of paucity of new firm's start-ups, which is mainly caused by a lack of financial resources for new innovative ideas as problematic (European Commission (2007–2013); Groen, Jenniskens, & van der Sijde, 2005). Consequently, during the latest decade, there has been an increase in the number of public sector financial schemes designed to promote entrepreneurship in very early-stage businesses (COM, 2005, 2006). These efforts have, however, escaped criticism. Those who promote public financing believe that with the right tools and governance this type of support is an important complement to the private sector financial market (Oakey, 2003). However, bankers and venture capitalists often state that the main issue is not the lack of available capital but the inability of entrepreneurs to convince investors of the merits of their business ideas (Mason & Harrison, 2002). There have also been arguments against the socioeconomic efficiency (Storey, 1994).

Details

New Technology-Based Firms in the New Millennium
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-374-4

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 May 2021

Gustav Hägg

The purpose of the paper is to theorize how to develop student entrepreneurs' ability to reflect by means of a learning activity called the entrepreneurial diary, which…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to theorize how to develop student entrepreneurs' ability to reflect by means of a learning activity called the entrepreneurial diary, which seeks to develop self-regulated learners capable of intelligent entrepreneurial action. The importance of self-regulation in entrepreneurship is linked to the individual's ability to make judgments under conditions of uncertainty, which requires reflective thinking.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper builds on a synthesized conceptualization of three main literature strands, reflective thinking, cognitive-load theory and experiential entrepreneurship education. In addition to the synthesized conceptualization, it builds on some empirical insights derived from a venture creation master programme in which the learning activity has been developed and refined for the last seven years.

Findings

The main finding from the paper is the theoretical justification for why reflective thinking deserves an important place in the educational process and how the entrepreneurial diary as a learning activity can create a bridge between theory and practice in venture creation programmes that take an experience-based pedagogical approach. Furthermore, the study also provides some empirical insights of how students create self-awareness of their learning through the method and the metareflection reports. Self-awareness is foundational for developing conditional knowledge on why and when to make entrepreneurial decisions to balance the often action-oriented processes seen in venture creation programmes.

Originality/value

The paper provides both a practical learning activity to be used in the entrepreneurial classroom and a theoretical contribution on how entrepreneurial experience is transformed into entrepreneurial knowledge to enhance students' judgmental abilities to make entrepreneurial decisions in future entrepreneurial endeavours.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Torbjörn Ljungkvist

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the verbal content and its impact on panel-based business advice meetings (springboards) for family business owners and startup…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the verbal content and its impact on panel-based business advice meetings (springboards) for family business owners and startup entrepreneurs. Further, the study also investigates how panel-based advising assists entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

The investigated springboards concern family business owners who run established firms and startup entrepreneurs who are applying for venture capital. Data from 12 different springboards are collected and studied by content analysis.

Findings

The outcomes indicate that advising is more constructive for the family business owners than for the startup entrepreneurs. This can mainly be explained by the rational screening that follows the business plan concept and group dynamics which appear in these meetings.

Research limitations/implications

The study was conducted in Sweden and concerns Swedish family business owners and startup entrepreneurs. It reveals different speech patterns that appear during organized advice-giving and its implications depending on the type of entrepreneur.

Practical implications

This study provides potential input to change the institutional practice of panel-based business advice, which will likely support entrepreneurs in their business development and network building.

Originality/value

This study is the first to investigate the verbal content in panel-based business advice for family business owners. Further, it provides a deeper understanding of the institutionalized conditions that this kind of advising builds on.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2013

Robert Smith, Gerard McElwee, Seonaidh McDonald and Sarah Drakopoulou Dodd

The purpose of this paper is to report on a review of the writing practices and experiences of scholars who have published qualitative papers in the field of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report on a review of the writing practices and experiences of scholars who have published qualitative papers in the field of entrepreneurship. It evaluates existing knowledge about how “well‐published” entrepreneurship scholars go about writing up qualitative research. It identifies the antecedents, processes, and consequences of qualitative research authorship as self‐described by authors.

Design/methodology/approach

Scholars who had published qualitative papers in the five top‐ranked entrepreneurship journals over a 20‐year period were asked to complete a qualitative survey about their writing practices. A qualitative analysis of 37 usable replies was undertaken.

Findings

Entrepreneurship scholars perceive their qualitative research writing to be more enriching and philosophical than quantitative research. Although they feel strong connections with their research subjects, they find qualitative research difficult and time consuming to write up. It is hard to bridge the gap between working with large amounts of transcribed data and the editorial requirements of journals, without losing the vitality of data. Qualitative research and subsequent writing skills have often been learned by trial and error. Many are inspired by specific texts, which may include novels, poems or plays.

Practical implications

This work shows how useful it is to discuss qualitative writing processes so that we may learn from the “blood, toil, tears and sweat” of those who have already successfully navigated both the writing and publishing of qualitative research.

Originality/value

Although there is a vigorous debate within the entrepreneurship literature about the prevalence and suitability of different methods and methodological approaches, there is no explicit discussion of how researchers engage with writing up qualitative research for publication. The paper addresses this gap and shares insights and guidance from our community of practice.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2019

Gianluca Zanella, Dante B. Castro Solano, Cory R.A. Hallam and Teja Guda

Entrepreneurial and strategic actions are crucial for wealth creation, and the business opportunity is a critical factor in this process. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurial and strategic actions are crucial for wealth creation, and the business opportunity is a critical factor in this process. The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of the firm’s strategic posture in the relationship between individual alertness and opportunity identification within an existing firm. This approach contributes to entrepreneurship theory building through a multilevel study.

Design/methodology/approach

The quantitative research focuses on understanding the mediating role of an organization’s strategic posture in the opportunity identification process. Using a sample of 276 firms, this study tests a two-level model to explain opportunity identification.

Findings

The findings provide empirical evidence that a firm’s strategic posture mediates the relationship between individual alertness and opportunity identification. Furthermore, this study finds differences in the mediating role of a firm’s strategic posture through which entrepreneurs and managers affect opportunity identification. Years after the creation of startup, the entrepreneurs still exhibit entrepreneurial characteristics that affect opportunity identification. The findings provide evidence that entrepreneurs foster an internal culture and set of values that are more favorable to radical innovation, compared to managers who favor incremental and less risky projects.

Practical implications

The findings suggest the possibility for new theory building that can improve the fields of entrepreneurship and management research. Moreover, the proposed model constitutes a new approach to analyze the mediating role of an organization’s strategic posture in the opportunity identification process.

Originality/value

This paper provides an original approach to literature in exploring the relationship between entrepreneurial alertness and firm’s strategic posture in explaining the opportunity identification process. This work will help expand the theory building that explores differences between managers and entrepreneurs in organizations.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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