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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2016

Charles Crawford and Ronald Burns

Recent highly publicized acts of violence and shootings on school campuses have prompted numerous crime prevention responses. The purpose of this paper is to assess the…

3198

Abstract

Purpose

Recent highly publicized acts of violence and shootings on school campuses have prompted numerous crime prevention responses. The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of protective measures such as law enforcement, security policies, and school/neighborhood characteristics on school violence within the context of the racial composition of the school and grade level.

Design/methodology/approach

The data used in this study were part of the School Survey on Crime and Safety collected in 2006. The dependent measures of school violence include reports of serious violence, physical attacks/fights, gun or knife possession, and threats and attacks with a weapon. The sample was divided by racial composition of the school (predominately white, and predominately minority schools) and by grade level (high schools, and all other grades). A negative binomial regression was conducted due the count-based dependent variables.

Findings

Findings revealed that minority schools often face higher levels of reported violence and had a heavier law enforcement presence, which often had mixed or counterproductive results for reducing school violence. School characteristics, such as reports of bullying, location, gang activity, and security measures yielded numerous statistically significant results.

Research limitations/implications

Officials proposing school violence prevention efforts should strongly consider the importance of school and community characteristics, most notably grade level, and the unique context of a predominately white or minority school as there were different statistically significant results. Furthermore, officials should be cautious about relying on simple efforts such as more security personnel to address school violence. Violence and crime on school grounds should not be viewed as being isolated from violence and other forms of crime in the community. Policy recommendations and suggestions for future research are provided.

Originality/value

This study differs from much of the previous literature, which typically examines student and administrator attitudes about victimization and crime prevention. The current study examines detailed information on the effects of school violence prevention efforts and moves beyond most other works as it considers school safety approaches within the context of racial composition of the school and by different grade levels.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 15 August 2016

Charles Crawford

422

Abstract

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Article
Publication date: 24 May 2013

Robert Hartmann McNamara, Charles Crawford and Ronald Burns

The homeless are a common sight in many cities and their actions frequently bring them into contact with the police. However, little is known about police policy and the…

4576

Abstract

Purpose

The homeless are a common sight in many cities and their actions frequently bring them into contact with the police. However, little is known about police policy and the homeless. The aim of this research was to examine policy, practices, and perceptions of the police and the homeless.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was mailed to 100 police departments in the United States to gather information about their policies, resources, and amount of contact with the homeless. A Chi square statistical analysis was conducted to assist in comparing departments on key issues. In addition, interviews were conducted with police officers and homeless individuals to gain further insight into their perceptions and experiences.

Findings

Policing issues with the homeless were examined by size of the department, municipality, and size of the population served. Law enforcement agencies of all sizes and jurisdictions encountered homeless individuals. Large municipal agencies had the most frequent contact, and provided the most services. However, these departments did not have significantly more training or information provided to officers regarding the homeless. The narratives from the interviews revealed a level of frustration and feelings of being burdened from officers, and a sense of being harassed and targeted from the homeless.

Research limitations/implications

The survey was only conducted with 100 departments as a pilot study, and the interviews were only conducted in one city. Future research would extend the survey to more departments and gather more information from officers and homeless individuals.

Originality/value

Results from the present work advance our understanding of the relatively under‐studied relations and social dynamics between law enforcement and the homeless – providing both a qualitative and quantitative assessment. There are several policy recommendations for law enforcement administrators and organizations that assist the homeless.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

Charles Crawford and Ronald Burns

Recent highly publicized acts of violence and shootings on campus have prompted numerous crime prevention suggestions including having an armed presence in the schools…

3500

Abstract

Purpose

Recent highly publicized acts of violence and shootings on campus have prompted numerous crime prevention suggestions including having an armed presence in the schools. The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of protective measures, policies, and school/neighborhood characteristics on school violence.

Design/methodology/approach

The data used in this study were part of the School Survey on Crime and Safety collected in 2006. The dependent measures of school violence include reports of violence, threatened attack with a weapon, attack with weapon, and gun possession. The sample was divided into high schools and all other grades to consider differences in levels of school violence among grade levels in relation to various law enforcement security measures, school security measures, and school characteristics.

Findings

Findings revealed mixed and often counterproductive results for law enforcement and school security efforts to control school violence. School characteristics, such as reports of bullying, location, and gang activity yielded numerous statistically significant findings. Policy recommendations and suggestions for future research are provided.

Originality/value

This study differs from much of the previous literature, which typically examines student and administrator attitudes about victimization and crime prevention. The current study examines detailed information on the actual effects of school violence prevention efforts. Furthermore, this study moves beyond most other works (that typically focus on high schools) as it considers school safety approaches by different grade levels.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 1995

Charles Crawford

Describes the ways in which commercial buildings can be protectedfrom explosive devices, and a variety of modern methods which are costeffective and successful. Analyses…

551

Abstract

Describes the ways in which commercial buildings can be protected from explosive devices, and a variety of modern methods which are cost effective and successful. Analyses major threats from terrorists and criminal gangs who target facilities, and lists the four steps of explosive management. Also provides detailed information on the different kinds of glass, doors, walls, floors, etc., that should be installed for a safer building. Finally, outlines mandatory building requirements.

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1928

France is honouring this year the birthday centenary of a man who conferred a benefaction upon the whole world yet died without distinction and in comparative poverty, if…

Abstract

France is honouring this year the birthday centenary of a man who conferred a benefaction upon the whole world yet died without distinction and in comparative poverty, if not obscurity. When in the early ’fifties of last century governments in Europe were becoming gravely concerned over the rapidly diminishing margin between food demands and supplies, it was Charles Tellier who came to their rescue. Tellier, who was born at Auteuil, Paris, in 1828, had been trained as a civil engineer, but he combined with the practical mind of the craftsman the analytical capacity of the scientist, and was early attracted by the problems associated with the chemical production of cold. The spectacle presented by a vast continent like Europe faced by the prospect of imminent food famine, while countries like Australia, New Zealand and America, particularly the Argentine, had far greater supplies than they knew what to do with stirred his imagination. Inventive genius in all parts of the world had been stimulated by the promise of a rich reward to the inventor of a practical method of preserving not only meat, but other perishable foodstuffs. The Government of the Argentine held out $8,000 as a bait to the ingenious. In Australia, where the tinning of meat was first exploited, new experiments along the same lines were tried. In England, where a Committee of the Society of Arts had been appointed “to consider practical steps in the direction of providing a more ample food supply,” officials were kept busy testing the inventions submitted for their consideration. One suggestion took the shape of the manufacture of what was described as the “Flour of Meat”; another inventor, borrowing his idea from the method of curing English hams, submitted a device for the production of “Australian Mutton Hams,” and still another ingenious person discovered a process for drying meat with sulphur dioxide. Tellier first experimented with air‐tight chambers. But the presence of the elements of decay in the meat itself defeated his designs. Pasteur's pronouncements on the subject of the preexistent presence of organic germs, at once authoritative and decisive, had the effect of diverting his attention to the refrigerator, and by repeated investigations he found that not only flowers but all kinds of perishable goods could be preserved for long periods on being frozen. It was in “The Engine Carre,” an ammonia compression machine, produced by the French engineer Carre, with whom he is said to have been in some way associated, that Tellier found perhaps the most important factor in facilitating the solution of his problem. This engine was completed about 1860. Eight years later Tellier made his first experiment in the shipment of meat under refrigeration. An ammonia compression machine was installed in a vessel, the “City of Rio de Janeiro,” which shipped three hundred kilos of beef from London for Monte Video. The intention was to place a cargo of meat on board at Uruguay for shipment on the homeward journey to France. But twenty‐three days out from London an accident which could not be repaired occurred to the refrigerating apparatus and the meat had to be eaten on board. So it came about that the United States were able to anticipate Tellier in the actual inauguration of a meat trade between the new and the old worlds dependent upon artificially cooled storage during transport. A shipment of chilled beef was made from the United States to this country in 1874.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Content available
Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Rodoula H Tsiotsou and Jochen Wirtz

510

Abstract

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 February 2014

Dr Bernadette Whelan

770

Abstract

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

Abstract

Details

Documents from the History of Economic Thought
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1423-2

Book part
Publication date: 19 November 2015

Gaelynn P. Wolf Bordonaro, Laura Cherry and Jessica Stallings

The relationship between learning and mental health, as well as a growing body of literature, underscores the need for art therapy in educational settings. This is…

Abstract

The relationship between learning and mental health, as well as a growing body of literature, underscores the need for art therapy in educational settings. This is particularly true for learners with special needs. Shostak et al. (1985) affirmed that “for children with special needs, art therapy in a school setting can offer opportunities to work through obstacles that impede educational success” (p. 19). School art therapy facilitates improved social interaction, increased learning behaviors, appropriate affective development, and increased empathy and personal well-being. It can be adapted to meet the specific developmental needs of individual students and to parallel students’ developmental, learning, and behavioral objectives. This chapter introduces the reader to the history and basic constructs of art therapy as a psychoeducational therapeutic intervention in schools. Model programs are identified, as well as the role of the art therapist within the context of K-12 education settings. Additionally, examples of special populations who benefit from art therapy intervention within school systems are provided, along with considerations for school-wide art therapy.

Details

Interdisciplinary Connections to Special Education: Key Related Professionals Involved
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-663-8

Keywords

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