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A study was conducted at a small university in the American Southwest. The purpose of the study was to determine the efficacy of a four-year campaign implemented by the…
A study was conducted at a small university in the American Southwest. The purpose of the study was to determine the efficacy of a four-year campaign implemented by the university's health services department. The campaign consisted of posting signs in lavatories across campus, reminding students, faculty, and staff to wash their hands after using the facilities.
In 2012, researchers conducted a traditional online survey embedded in a university-wide weekly electronic newsletter. Both students and employees at the participating university were recruited for the study. The sample represented members of the community with potential exposure to the handwashing promotion campaign as described above, as well as to the health risks associated with varying practices of sanitation behaviors among members of a public institution.
Results indicated participants generally believed in the positive outcomes of handwashing practices. Further, they did not agree that handwashing practices would result in negative outcomes. As for self-reported hand sanitization practices, participants relied more on handwashing than using alcohol-based sanitizer to sanitize hands in all instances.
Members of the institution reported having positive beliefs and attitude toward handwashing provide a strong basis for an effective handwashing promotion campaign. The emphasis on positive outcomes of adequate and proper handwashing, however, still needs to continue. Therefore, continuing education for the institution's members on the positive outcomes of handwashing can further enhance their attitude and the sense of responsibility to wash their hands as frequently as needed.
Before it was fully nationalized in 1945, the Banque de France was a listed company that distributed dividends to its shareholders and was listed on the Paris stock…
Before it was fully nationalized in 1945, the Banque de France was a listed company that distributed dividends to its shareholders and was listed on the Paris stock exchange. By comparing with other stocks and indexes, I show that, in spite of large earnings, Banque de France’s stock was a lackluster but popular investment. By examining the distribution of profits between the state and ordinary shareholders, I show that the state began to exert an influence over the Bank well before its nationalization, in the nineteenth century, amounting to a stealthy takeover. I then go on to analyze the Bank’s formal governance framework and the power of its regents (directors). Using a novel method to compute the shareholders’ statistical distribution, I conclude that small new shareholders who were less sophisticated bought predominantly shares from old larger shareholders. Eventually, most of the shareholders were “petit-bourgeois” passive rentiers who accepted the mediocre performance and kept reelecting the regents. I conclude by saying that the power of the 200 largest shareholders (“200 families”) was a political myth with little foundation in reality.
The purpose of this paper is to expose librarians, scholars and other interested parties to the numerous films available concerning the 1989 and 1991 European revolutions…
The purpose of this paper is to expose librarians, scholars and other interested parties to the numerous films available concerning the 1989 and 1991 European revolutions. The films that are discussed can potentially be used as ancillary sources that will lead to a more in-depth understanding of these topics.
This paper is a literature review examining films relating to the 1989 and 1991 revolutions in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. The findings are presented in the form of an annotated bibliography.
A total of 24 films from eight countries are presented in this annotated bibliography.
In researching this paper, the authors have been unable to find any similar works, which makes this work of particular value to those wanting to learn more about this period of change in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union.