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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2019

Charles A. Barragato

The purpose of this paper is to examine the requirement that non-profit organizations recognize unconditional promises to give as assets and revenues in the year promises…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the requirement that non-profit organizations recognize unconditional promises to give as assets and revenues in the year promises are received as mandated by Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) No. 116.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the adoption of SFAS No. 116 and financial information reported on Internal Revenue Service Form 990, the study examines the requirement that non-profit organizations recognize unconditional promises to give as assets and revenues in the year promises are received. Combining insights derived from a model developed by Dechow, Kothari and Watts (1998) with the rationale applied by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) in mandating recognition treatment, it adopts the view that information about promises to give is relevant if it useful in assessing probable future cash inflows. The study also employs relative tests of predictive ability to assess competing specifications.

Findings

The study finds that recognizing unconditional promises to give as assets and as revenues in the year received improves predictions of next period’s cash inflows. It also finds that accrual-based contribution revenue consistently provides information content that is incremental to cash-based contribution revenue.

Research limitations/implications

This paper has implications for several other lines of research as well. First, an ancillary concern expressed by many organizations in the non-profit sector was that the recognition of multi-year promises to give would adversely affect trends in long-term giving. In this regard, another promising line of inquiry would be to empirically test the Standard’s impact on the time-series properties of contributions and short- and long-term giving trends. Second, future research might consider conducting tests after partitioning by NTEE/NAICS classification, as well as substituting or supplementing the SOI data with financial statement data. Third, future research might consider applying the approach used in this study to other industries or groups for which market prices are not readily ascertainable. Data constraints, including the calculation of cash flow information indirectly from the balance sheet, impose limitations on this study.

Practical implications

This study documents that by recognizing unconditional promises to give as assets and revenues in the period received, donors, creditors and other users gain useful information about probable future cash inflows – a fundamental element of the accrual process and one of several important factors used to evaluate an organization’s ability to sustain future operations. This information is valuable to stakeholders and practitioners who rely on this information to make informed decisions. It is also helpful to standard setters in establishing guidelines that improve the usefulness of financial reporting for non-profits.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to existing literature by operationalizing, in a non-profit setting, a model that describes the relationship among revenues, accruals and cash flows. It fills a gap in the accrual literature regarding the relevance of non-profit revenue accruals. The study is the first to employ a relative information content approach to assess non-profit standards, which provides useful input to policy makers and end users. It affirms that many of the key conventions and elements embodied in the FASB Concepts Statements apply to non-profits as well, which heretofore has not been studied extensively. The results are also consistent with Accounting Standards Update 958, Not-for-Profit Entities, which requires that non-profits provide users with information about liquidity, including how they manage liquid resources needed to meet cash requirements for general expenditures within one year of the date of the statement of financial position.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 April 2008

Charles A. Barragato and Ariel Markelevich

The paper aims to examine earnings quality during the post‐acquisition period.

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Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to examine earnings quality during the post‐acquisition period.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper defines earnings quality as an earnings stream more closely associated with future cash flows from operations. It uses the stock market's reaction at the acquisition announcement to infer merger motives and hypothesize that synergy‐motivated acquisitions will produce higher quality earnings than agency‐motivated acquisitions.

Findings

The paper finds that synergy‐motivated acquisitions produce higher quality earnings than agency‐motivated acquisitions.

Research limitations/implications (if applicable)

The findings are consistent with this prediction and support the view that managers who pursue synergy or agency‐motivated acquisitions do not face the same economic environment and incentive schemes. The results are also consistent with the notion that incentives for earnings management are greater following agency‐motivated acquisitions when compared to those of synergy‐motivated acquisitions. The authors conjecture that these differences originate from those accounting‐based contracts that are likely impacted by reported post‐acquisition balance sheet and income statement amounts.

Practical implications

The findings of the paper show that the motive for the acquisition has lasting effect, several years post acquisition on the quality of earnings produced by the merged entity; thus furnishing additional importance to identifying the motive for the acquisition.

Originality/value

The paper uses the corporate acquisition setting to examine earnings quality during the post‐acquisition period. This paper should be relevant for researchers studying either the quality of earnings or corporate acquisitions.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2019

Christie L. Comunale, Charles A. Barragato and Denise Buhrau

In this study, we examine the role of temporal framing in the context of tax audit risk. Using construal-level theory, we propose that compared with an every-year frame…

Abstract

In this study, we examine the role of temporal framing in the context of tax audit risk. Using construal-level theory, we propose that compared with an every-year frame (e.g., 1.5 million returns are audited every year), framing audit risk in an everyday frame (e.g., 4,000 returns are audited every day) will make audit risk seem more likely and thus increase taxpayer compliance. We test whether perceived fairness of the tax system, an individual difference variable related to tax compliance, moderates the effect of temporal framing on behavioral intentions. The results show that communicating risk in a day frame rather than a year frame increases compliance for taxpayers who perceive the tax system as unfair but not for taxpayers who perceive the tax system as fair. Increasing compliance among taxpayers who perceive the tax system as unfair is crucial, as they are less likely to be compliant. Thus, framing audit risk can assist in increasing taxpayer compliance.

Details

Advances in Accounting Behavioral Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-346-8

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 12 December 2022

Charles A. Barragato, Christie L. Comunale and Stephen Gara

Individuals and corporations give generously to nonprofit organizations. However, supporters are naturally concerned about the financial strength and operational…

Abstract

Individuals and corporations give generously to nonprofit organizations. However, supporters are naturally concerned about the financial strength and operational efficiency of an organization. Using publicly available nonprofit databases and websites, this case exposes students to a real-world scenario in which students analyze a 501(c)(3) organization of their choosing using GuideStar data and select Better Business Bureau Wise Giving Alliance criteria in five areas: governance and oversight, effectiveness, finances, fundraising and information materials, other financial and non-financial performance measures. The overall learning objective of this case is to enhance students’ understanding of a nonprofit’s financial and non-financial performance through research and analytical procedures. This case helps to fill a void by familiarizing students not only with standard nonprofit financial performance metrics, but also important non-financial areas related to governance, mission-driven goals, and organizational transparency. It also affords students the opportunity to develop a more thorough understanding of key accounting and non-accounting issues associated with nonprofits, which are not always explicitly or implicitly covered in textbooks.

Details

Advances in Accounting Education: Teaching and Curriculum Innovations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80382-727-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 September 2007

Rani Hoitash, Ariel Markelevich and Charles A. Barragato

The paper aims to examine the relation between fees paid to auditors and audit quality during the period of 2000‐2003.

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Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to examine the relation between fees paid to auditors and audit quality during the period of 2000‐2003.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper constructs a measure of auditor profitability that is used as a proxy for auditor independence. The methodology is grounded in the notion that auditor independence is influenced by effort and risk‐adjusted fees, rather than the level of fees received from clients. Since, risk and effort are unobservable, the paper uses proxies based on client size, complexity and risk to estimate abnormal fees. Abnormal fees are derived using a fee estimation model drawn from prior literature. The paper employs two metrics to assess audit quality – the standard deviation of residuals from regressions relating current accruals to cash flows and the absolute value of performance‐adjusted discretionary accruals.

Findings

The paper documents a statistically significant negative association between total fees and both audit quality proxies over all years. These findings are robust to a variety of additional tests and several alternative design specifications. The results (pre‐ and post‐SOX) are consistent with economic bonding being a determinant of auditor behavior rather than auditor reputational concerns.

Research limitations/implications

The possibility that the empirical tests do not completely capture the impact of unobserved risk cannot be ruled out, though the paper attempts to do so by employing alternative specifications and sensitivity tests.

Practical implications

Policy makers should note that current restrictions on the provision of non‐audit services may not sufficiently resolve the issue of economic bonding and its impact on auditor independence.

Originality/value

In contrast to previous studies whose results are ambiguous, the paper finds a statistically significant positive association between several measures of total fees (it uses size‐adjusted and abnormal fees) and two metrics of accruals quality in all years (2000‐2003), consistent with economic bonding being a determinant of auditor behavior rather then auditor reputation concerns.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 22 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 12 December 2022

Abstract

Details

Advances in Accounting Education: Teaching and Curriculum Innovations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80382-727-8

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2019

Abstract

Details

Advances in Accounting Behavioral Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-346-8

Article
Publication date: 12 July 2021

Hui Liu, Charles Cullinan and Junrui Zhang

Companies may be defendants in lawsuits that are unresolved at year-end. This paper aims to consider whether the financial statements of companies facing litigation claims…

Abstract

Purpose

Companies may be defendants in lawsuits that are unresolved at year-end. This paper aims to consider whether the financial statements of companies facing litigation claims (pending litigation) are more time-consuming to audit due to the complexity and subjectivity of contingent liabilities associated with pending litigation. The authors consider whether auditors tailor their approach to pending litigation based on two distinct factors in the Chinese business environment: the client’s government ownership status and the legal development of the region in which the company is based.

Design/methodology/approach

Data on litigation against companies and their audit report lags were obtained for 18,029 firm-year observations of Chinese companies from 2008 to 2017. The sample was subsequently divided based on whether the company was a state-owned enterprise (SOE) and based on whether the company was based in a region of China with a more-developed and more market-oriented legal system.

Findings

The overall results indicate that audits of companies with pending litigation take 2.9 days longer than those of companies without pending litigation. For companies with multiple pending claims, each additional claim is associated with 1.9 more days of audit report lag. These effects are weaker for SOEs and for companies in regions of China with less developed legal systems. The results are consistent with the idea that auditors tailor their response to pending litigation based on the risk profile of the client, including consideration of SOE status and regional legal development.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to consider the potential effect of pending litigation (including claims not disclosed or recognized in financial statements) on audit report lags and how environmental business factors can influence this relationship.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 July 2022

Tajudeen John Ayoola

This study aims to examine the mediating role of audit seasonality on the association between audit fees and audit quality in Nigerian deposit money banks.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the mediating role of audit seasonality on the association between audit fees and audit quality in Nigerian deposit money banks.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample comprises 14 banks with annual financial statements between 2008 and 2020. The modified Baron and Kenny’s (1986) causal mediation model by Iacobucci et al. (2007) through the use of bootstrapped partial least square structural equation modelling and Sobel’s (1986) z-test is adopted to achieve this study’s objective.

Findings

The results of the causal mediation analysis show evidence of a fully mediating role of audit seasonality in the association between audit fees and audit quality in the Nigerian banking industry.

Research limitations/implications

This study extends the body of knowledge by demonstrating how audit fees influence audit quality through audit seasonality as a mediator in line with the job demands-and resources and conservation of resources theories. Regulatory authorities should be wary of policies that will further increase the workload of already burdened personnel of audit firms as the uniform fiscal year-end of 31 December introduced in the Nigerian banking system has unintended consequences on audit fees and audit quality.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is one of the first studies to provide evidence on the indirect association between audit fees and audit quality.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

Keywords

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