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Article

Roger Bennett and Rohini Vijaygopal

This paper aims to explore the use of an appeal, belonging and commitment social marketing intervention to rescue a failing corporate “charity of the year” exercise that…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the use of an appeal, belonging and commitment social marketing intervention to rescue a failing corporate “charity of the year” exercise that involved a mental disability charity. It describes the improvements experienced consequent to the introduction of volunteer “charity ambassadors” (CAs) appointed to champion the charity’s cause.

Design/methodology/approach

The study revolved around company employees’ responses to an open-ended question concerning their attitudes towards people with mental disabilities. A semi-automated qualitative research technique (structural topic modelling [STM]) was used to analyse the replies both pre- and post-intervention. Regression analyses were undertaken to explain whether employees’ replies to the question fell in specific categories.

Findings

The intervention was successful. Employees’ attitudes regarding mentally impaired people shifted substantially away from fear and towards feelings of benevolence and compassion. Employees’ financial donations to the charity increased significantly consequent to the intervention. Levels of benevolence and compassion depended significantly on participants’ prior exposure to people with mental disabilities, gender and degree of involvement in activities associated with the intervention.

Research limitations/implications

Stakeholders other than employees were not sampled. Open-ended responses to a single question can oversimplify complex issues.

Practical implications

Outcomes to the research demonstrate how CAs can induce positive attitudes and behaviour towards an “unpopular cause”.

Originality/value

The results highlight some of the problems attached to corporate sponsorship of unpopular causes. A relatively recently developed open-ended qualitative research technique, STM, was used to examine employees’ attitudes. Classifications of findings emerged from the data and did not depend on a predetermined coding scheme.

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Article

Adelina Broadbridge and Liz Parsons

The charity retail format has experienced significant growth over the last 30 years to a situation where charity shops have now become a taken for granted feature of local…

Abstract

The charity retail format has experienced significant growth over the last 30 years to a situation where charity shops have now become a taken for granted feature of local high streets across the UK. Traditionally charity shops have played an important service role in their local communities by providing low cost goods and employing voluntary staff. However, alongside the growth of the sector, charities have become increasingly professional in their approach to managing their shops. Changes include the introduction of paid managers and shop assistants and an overall ’‘trading up” of the charity retail environment. This paper explores in detail this professionalisation of the charity retail sector. It then examines the impact of this professionalisation on the role of charity shops in their local communities and speculate on the likely future for charity retail in this context.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 31 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

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Article

Seongseop (Sam) Kim, Kuo-Ching Wang, Wan-Ting Jhu and Yang (Young) Gao

This paper aims to explore the effectiveness of children as advertisement endorsers in the airline context, including images of safety and reliability.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the effectiveness of children as advertisement endorsers in the airline context, including images of safety and reliability.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is intended to examine the advertising effect of endorsers (celebrities, CEOs, experts, consumers and children) in the context of the airline industry. A factorial experiment was conducted to test the communication effect (CE) of ten groups of advertisement combinations (five endorser types – with/without safety attribute).

Findings

The results indicate that a child endorser yielded a better CE than celebrity, CEO or typical consumer endorsers. Second, advertisements that emphasized safety had better CE than those without this emphasis. The group combining children and safety generated a better CE than most of the other groups comprising different combinations.

Practical implications

A child endorser and a safety message are recommended to be used in advertisements for airlines because flight passengers place importance on safety. Fragile image of child reinforces safety of an airline.

Originality/value

The integration of advertising endorsement and message into a conceptual model allows the current results to provide meaningful theoretical and practical implications.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 28 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article

Peter Kennedy and David Kennedy

The purpose of this paper is to examine the elective affinity between sport science and elite football by situating it first, within the wider political economy of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the elective affinity between sport science and elite football by situating it first, within the wider political economy of football and second, within the dynamics of the market and work situation faced by elite players in the modern game.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology underpinning this paper continues this movement by considering the impact on market and work situation of elite footballers due to wider social structures and the distribution of social power peculiar to the football industry. It is premised on the view that observed events and contingent relations and processes are linked to more enduring social structures and that knowledge must take account of all three.

Findings

The resulting impact of sport science on elite football is contradictory, facilitating, on the one hand, the development of football as an aesthetic experience, while on the other hand, threatening to transform the football spectacle into a mundane exercise in the search for increased functional peak performance for its own sake.

Research limitations/implications

The value of this paper is that it considers salaries and player power to determine value by exploring the impact on market and work situation of elite footballers set in the context of wider social structures and the distribution of social power peculiar to the football industry.

Practical implications

Elite footballers yield immense power over their market situation, which sport science has the potential to enhance and sustain by fine honing peak fitness. The football club’s relative lack of control of the player’s market situation necessitates the appliance of sport science to help maximize control over the player’s work situation.

Social implications

The paper demonstrates that sport science develops elite footballers to peak fitness, while also developing footballers as commodities; and this latter aspect if taken too far may potentially transform football into a mundane exercise in the search for increased functional peak performance for its own sake.

Originality/value

The paper draws together the relatively neglected analysis of the football labour process with the increasing interventions of sport science to football and sets this within a broader political economy of football.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

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Article

Melanie Hall and Barbara Bassot

This article offers a reflective analysis of the Eco Ambassadors Project as an example of the some of the ways in which learning about environmental issues and active…

Abstract

This article offers a reflective analysis of the Eco Ambassadors Project as an example of the some of the ways in which learning about environmental issues and active citizenship can be encouraged and enabled through collaboration and negotiated participation. Some policy background to the project is given, followed by a critical consideration of the theoretical framework of situated learning; participation in a community of practice is then presented in relation to the project, alongside theories of citizenship. Three activities undertaken during the project are highlighted and these are critically examined in relation to the theories under consideration. The paper argues that the theoretical framework of learning by participation can usefully augment and help better explain how learners develop their identities as citizens, and that through participation people can become active members of communities that are environmentally and politically aware.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

Keywords

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Article

Rebecca Anne Allahyari

American sociology has long been concerned with the social conditioning of American character, particularly with regard to caring for others. This interest can be traced…

Abstract

American sociology has long been concerned with the social conditioning of American character, particularly with regard to caring for others. This interest can be traced to Alexis de Tocqueville's Democracy in America (1899[1838]) in which he reflected on how democratic participation in government and voluntary associations in the 1830s shaped the American character. Tocqueville believed that participation in social institutions, and especially voluntary societies, balanced the potentially excessive individualism he observed in the United States. David Riesman's The Lonely Crowd: A Study of Changing American Character (1950) picked up similar themes in an exploration of the isolation of the individual within modern society. These concerns reached a broad audience more recently in Robert N. Bellah, Richard Madsen, William M. Sullivan, Ann Swidler, and Steven M. Tipton's Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life (1985) in which the authors argued that the scale had swung in favor of individualism at the expense of commitment to the social good. Robert Wuthnow (1991) addressed these issues again in Acts of Compassion: Caring for Others and Helping Ourselves, in which he explored how in volunteer work, Americans attempted to reconcile compassion with individualism. These studies, primarily focusing on white, middle‐class Americans, have laid the groundwork for an exploration of the social nature of the American character within the context of caring for others.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 16 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article

Gary Gregory, Liem Ngo and Ryan Miller

The purpose of this study develops and validates a model of new donor decision-making in the charity sector. Drawing upon dual process theory, the model incorporates brand…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study develops and validates a model of new donor decision-making in the charity sector. Drawing upon dual process theory, the model incorporates brand salience and brand attitude as antecedents of brand choice intention, moderated by donor decision involvement.

Design/methodology/approach

Study 1 generates measures using interviews with marketing, media and research managers, and new donors from two international aid and relief organizations. Study 2 uses an experimental design to first test scenarios of disaster relief, and then validate and confirm a new donor decision model using large-scale consumer panels for the international aid and relief sector in Australia.

Findings

The results replicated across four leading international aid-related charities reveal that brand salience is positively related to brand choice intention through the mediating effect of brand attitude. Furthermore, the effect of brand salience on brand choice intention is significantly stronger when donor decision involvement is low. Conversely, the effect of brand attitude on brand choice intention is stronger for higher levels of donor decision involvement.

Practical implications

Managers should understand the importance of brand salience/attitudes and the implications for the communication strategy. Managers should also strive to understand the level of decision involvement and the relative influence of brand attitude/salience on brand choice intention.

Originality/value

This study advances the literature on charitable giving by proposing and testing a moderated mediation model of donor choice when selecting a charity for donation. Findings provide new insights into the extent to which brand salience, brand attitude and donor decision-making influence how new donors choose between charities for donation.

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Article

Paul Turner

This paper aims to identify how integrated marketing communications (IMC) was applied to a major multi-cultural sporting event, the Asian Cup 2015, through event…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify how integrated marketing communications (IMC) was applied to a major multi-cultural sporting event, the Asian Cup 2015, through event ambassadors integrating the Kliatchko (2008) four-pillars model of IMC.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 people involved with the event, with questions designed to ascertain ways in which the multicultural communication occurred.

Findings

The four-pillars model is applicable in this case. Interviews identified that while the cultural and football issues being faced by the organisers introduced many challenges, ambassador communication proved to be an extremely effective process of IMC. The integration of ambassador communications overcame many cultural barriers with respect to language, ticketing and communication, enabling engagement of communication channels.

Research limitations/implications

This research addressed a specific multicultural event in one specific market. While providing insights into how this event managed its IMC programme, investigation into other events is required to identify whether similar results would apply.

Practical implications

The way in which the event incorporated community members into the IMC programme provides a strong opportunity to examine whether this approach could be applied by marketing managers more broadly.

Originality/value

An examination of the IMC conducted in conjunction with a major event has not featured previously, and the original way in which this event conducted its communications highlights aspects that are relevant to marketers in all organisations.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 51 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article

Roger Bennett

This empirical investigation aims to examine the approaches to “beneficiary marketing” adopted by a sample of charities in sectors such as homelessness, eating disorders…

Abstract

Purpose

This empirical investigation aims to examine the approaches to “beneficiary marketing” adopted by a sample of charities in sectors such as homelessness, eating disorders, domestic violence, addiction, etc., and the possible antecedents and consequences of particular marketing styles.

Design/methodology/approach

A mail questionnaire was sent to the heads of 618 charities or their regional offices in the UK's 20 largest cities, resulting in 172 replies. It was hypothesised that a charity's competitive market situation influenced its level of market orientation and hence its adoption of relationship marketing vis‐à‐vis beneficiaries. The impacts on marketing behaviour of an organisation's “strategic intent” and the existence of innately competitive instincts among its senior managers were explored. Possible connections between, on the one hand, market orientation and relationship marketing in relation to beneficiaries and, on the other, the same tendencies in respect of a charity's financial supporters were examined.

Findings

The results suggested that certain competitive factors known to drive conduct in the commercial domain also affected the behaviour of many of the sample charities. Organisations in the sample that were market‐orientated in relation to fundraising were also market‐orientated when they marketed their services to beneficiaries. Equally, charities that practised relationship marketing vis‐à‐vis donors also applied relationship marketing to their beneficiary marketing activities.

Originality/value

The paper adds value to pre‐existing literature concerning the alleged existence of a significant link between market orientation and performance. Additionally the research discovered a powerful connection between relationship marketing and charity client satisfaction, implying the need for charity managers to develop effective beneficiary relationship‐marketing strategy.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 19 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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Article

Hina Khan and Donna Ede

The motivation behind this research is to remedy a gap in the literature on the role of branding within small to medium‐sized not‐for‐profit organisations that are not…

Abstract

Purpose

The motivation behind this research is to remedy a gap in the literature on the role of branding within small to medium‐sized not‐for‐profit organisations that are not part of the charity or voluntary sector.

Design/methodology/approach

To understand the role precisely, a qualitative study based on in‐depth interviews with not‐for‐profit small to medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) was undertaken. The study identifies how these organisations develop their brands and the role that branding plays within such organisations. Two new models are presented to visually demonstrate the processes – a brand development matrix as a guide to the brand development decision process, and a focal model for the role of branding within not‐for‐profit SMEs.

Findings

Significantly, the study finds that employees play an important role as “ambassadors” of the brand. Forging links and working in partnerships were found to be exceptionally valuable in helping the organisations establish “a name” as well as raising awareness. Consequently, associations linked to the brand come from interactions that customers and other stakeholders have had with employees.

Research limitations/implications

The study was qualitative and, therefore, more subjective in nature.

Practical implications

This study sought to explore how not‐for‐profit SMEs develop their brands to begin to remedy a gap in the current literature. The objectives of the study that the researchers set out to achieve have been aided by the development of two new models. The findings show evidence of similarities between the more conventional models of branding, whilst also revealing new findings not currently in the literature.

Originality/value

The horizon for not‐for‐profit organisations is changing. This has put increasing pressure on such organisations to establish “a name” for themselves. Although a considerable amount has been published on the role of branding in large commercial organisations, the researchers believe this is the first study to explicitly explore the role of branding to not‐for‐profit SMEs (not part of the charity/voluntary sector).

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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