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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2002

Necia France, Graham Francis, STEWART LAWRENCE and Sydney Sacks

The motivation for this paper is to better understand the strengths and limitations of quantitative performance measures in a changing environment. The context is one of…

Abstract

The motivation for this paper is to better understand the strengths and limitations of quantitative performance measures in a changing environment. The context is one of organisational change and innovative management. Using a case study approach, the paper presents a history of organisational change and focuses on attempts to drive and assess efficiency through performance measures in a public hospital‐based pathology laboratory. The various financial and non‐financial performance measures used in the laboratory are presented. A discrepancy between accounting reports and laboratory management analyses of costs is reported. The notorious difficulties of costing health services are examined through the dispute that arose about whether the mean cost‐per‐test was increasing or decreasing over a three‐year period. Competing representations of performance are analysed. Whilst the case study looks at a New Zealand example, many of the pressures facing pathology services are typical of medical laboratories worldwide. General issues of performance measurement are discussed.

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Pacific Accounting Review, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0114-0582

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1998

Richard C. Ringer and Kelly C. Strong

As a result of fundamental change in the environment, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is in the process of major organizational change. This paper reports the…

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645

Abstract

As a result of fundamental change in the environment, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is in the process of major organizational change. This paper reports the perspectives of four senior managers at the laboratory regarding the change effort and a major restructuring that took place at LANL. Describing the challenges the organization faces and the lessons they have learned, these managers provide a unique viewpoint of change at the laboratory, and organizational change in general. Several key lessons can be learned from the experience of LANL: (1) a well‐understood vision/mission is essential to organizations undergoing major change; (2) major organizational change may take longer than expected; (3) top manager commitment and open communication are critical to the change effort; and (4) changes in structure must be supported by changes in other areas (e.g. compensation and training).

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Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 5 April 2011

Jaakko Virkkunen and Heli Ahonen

The purpose of this paper is to show the importance of theoretical‐genetic reflection in expansive learning and the transformation of an activity.

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1305

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show the importance of theoretical‐genetic reflection in expansive learning and the transformation of an activity.

Design/methodology/approach

Cultural‐historical activity theory is used to explicate forms of work‐related reflection, and an intervention method based on activity theory, the change laboratory, is presented.

Findings

Different levels of reflection and the intellectual tools needed for them are identified.

Research limitations/implications

The empirical support presented for the theoretical ideas in the article is based on an exemplary case. This intervention method makes it possible to analyze reflection as a tool‐mediated collaborative activity.

Practical implications

The change laboratory method can be used to support expansive learning and learning to learn in work communities.

Originality/value

The paper introduces a less well‐known original intervention methodology to the audience of the JOCM and demonstrates how it connects some current lines of thought in change management.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2008

Hazel A. Wright, Joseph E. Ironside and Dylan Gwynn‐Jones

This study aims to identify the current barriers to sustainability in the bioscience laboratory setting and to determine which mechanisms are likely to increase…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify the current barriers to sustainability in the bioscience laboratory setting and to determine which mechanisms are likely to increase sustainable behaviours in this specialised environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The study gathers qualitative data from a sample of laboratory researchers presently conducting experimentation in the biological sciences. A questionnaire, regarding sustainability in the laboratory, was developed and distributed to all bioscience researchers at Aberystwyth University.

Findings

Although the majority of respondents had favourable attitudes to sustainability, almost three‐quarters (71 per cent) stated that they were not conducting their research in the most sustainable way possible. The factors most likely to hinder sustainable behaviour were lack of support, lack of information and time constraints. However, monetary costs and benefits, closely followed by “other” costs and benefits, were most likely to encourage sustainable behaviour in the laboratory.

Research limitations/implications

There is a need to extend the present research to other types of biological research, such as field‐based studies. Different biological disciplines may have different consumable requirements and waste streams, thereby changing the barriers to sustainability observed.

Practical implications

The findings have immediate practical implication for higher education institutions wishing to adopt researcher‐approved mechanisms to reduce the environmental impact of biological laboratory research.

Originality/value

This is the first study to design a sustainability questionnaire which is specific to research scientists and laboratory users. The paper is therefore of immense value to the numerous global higher education institutions with working laboratories which seek to minimise the environmental impact of research.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2020

Alison Robinson Canham and Luisa Bunescu

The European Forum for Enhanced Collaboration in Teaching (EFFECT, 2015–2019) (EFFECT, 2019), a project co-financed by the European Commission, through its Erasmus…

Abstract

The European Forum for Enhanced Collaboration in Teaching (EFFECT, 2015–2019) (EFFECT, 2019), a project co-financed by the European Commission, through its Erasmus+ programme, has been exploring effective methods for university teachers’ development at the European level, including pedagogical staff development “modules” to support inclusivity and citizenship in teaching and learning practice. Throughout the project and in this chapter, the authors have taken “inclusivity” to convey an attitude and appreciation for principles which inform “inclusion” as a practice – in the context of reflective and reflexive practice the words become largely interchangeable.

The way academic staff teach is of critical importance in any reform designed to enhance inclusion and citizenship in higher education. Conveying these values-related topics in an academic context hardly lends itself to a traditional pedagogical training model. Promoting inclusion means stimulating discussion, challenging stereotypes and unconscious biases, as well as improving educational and social frameworks. The Change Laboratory methodology (Engeström, 2001) was chosen for the pedagogical staff development workshops under EFFECT, with a view to engaging teaching staff in a deeper reflection about the topics and about their teaching practice. Change Laboratory is an intervention-research methodology that aims at reconceptualizing activity: it intends to provoke authentic reactions, responses and disagreements among the participants and provides opportunity for them to work together to reimagine their activities and to identify “concrete” solutions that address persisting issues in their practice. The theory takes a broad conceptualization of “activity” and “practice,” which is not specific to the education sector or the “classroom.” The Change Laboratory is a methodology designed to support the “expansive learning cycle” described by Engeström and as such can be understood as a theory of change which the EFFECT project team applied to a pan-European higher education learning and teaching context.

In 2017, the project team designed and implemented four physical, face-to-face pedagogical staff development workshops on inclusivity and citizenship skills based on this methodology, attended by over 100 participants from across Europe. In 2018, the workshop model was adapted to a virtual learning environment and three online sessions on inclusivity and citizenship skills for higher education teaching staff were offered.

The pedagogical staff development workshops enabled participants to use open reflective questions to provoke discussion about the challenges faced in their own learning and teaching contexts, think about their pedagogical practices and identify their unconscious biases. Most of the participants rated the workshops as very good and innovative, and considered the methodology an effective vehicle for promoting meaningful open discussion.

In this chapter, the authors reflect on the design, implementation and lessons learnt from the pedagogical staff development workshops on inclusivity and citizenship skills. The authors propose a set of recommendations for individual teaching staff and institutional leadership to consider when addressing continuous professional development for inclusivity and citizenship.

Details

Developing and Supporting Multiculturalism and Leadership Development: International Perspectives on Humanizing Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-460-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1991

A.K. Szczepura

The future of pathology services in the NHS is currently underconsideration. Recent developments in diagnostic technologies and theirpossible impact on pathology testing…

Abstract

The future of pathology services in the NHS is currently under consideration. Recent developments in diagnostic technologies and their possible impact on pathology testing in the future are discussed. Trends and patterns of demand for all three main pathology specialties are analysed over the 12‐year period, 1974‐86. The inflation‐adjusted, revenue cost of pathology testing per hospital admission (excluding capital costs) is shown to have fallen in real terms over this period, although it is uncertain whether this would still be the case were capital costs to be included. In the hospital sector, reported increases in demand can be quite simply related to increasing hospital activity by using a linear regression model. However, the very large increases in demand observed in the primary care sector cannot be related reasonably to any routinely reported practice activity indicators. The implications of this highly volatile pattern of demand in general practice are discussed, especially in relation to recent technological advances designed to produce rapid, near‐patient, surgery‐based tests. Although analysis indicates no evidence for historical technology‐induced increases in demand for laboratory services following the introduction of laboratory automation in the 1970s, the possibility of technology‐induced demand in the primary health care sector following the widespread introduction of surgery‐based tests is discussed.

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Journal of Management in Medicine, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-9235

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Christopher P. Price

To review the application of the principles of benchmarking to the field of laboratory medicine.

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1461

Abstract

Purpose

To review the application of the principles of benchmarking to the field of laboratory medicine.

Design/methodology/approach

Review of the literature on performance management techniques employed in healthcare provision, and specifically in laboratory medicine, including benchmarking.

Findings

The review identifies the main performance indicators employed in quality assurance and benchmarking programmes that have been developed in laboratory medicine. Some of these have a clear benefit in improving laboratory performance, whilst others are used for more general management purposes. The emphasis of these programmes is on improving analytical performance, together with pre‐ and post‐analytical performance. The review highlights the fact that benchmarking in laboratory medicine is undertaken largely in isolation from the clinical setting in which it is applied. The benchmarking activities are, therefore, concerned with the process (dealing predominantly with efficiency and productivity) of producing laboratory results and do not probe into the way in which the laboratory services are employed in the care of patients (dealing with outcomes and value). Some examples of health outcomes studies are discussed, which demonstrate the value of the laboratory medicine service. They highlight the complexity of developing a more outcomes orientated approach to benchmarking of laboratory medicine services. These studies would show how the laboratory was used; they give a more holistic view of the role of laboratory medicine in healthcare provision.

Originality/value

The review shows how a more comprehensive and integrated approach to benchmarking of laboratory medicine service would provide valuable information on the effectiveness of the laboratory services.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1976

Larry E. Pate and Kendrith M. Rowland

In a recent issue of the Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, Blake strongly criticised an article on organisational change by Blumberg and Wiener for the authors'…

Abstract

In a recent issue of the Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, Blake strongly criticised an article on organisational change by Blumberg and Wiener for the authors' failure thoroughly to review the literature and for missing important material relevant to their study. In response, Blumberg simply stated that they were not aware of the material, because it had appeared in a relatively obscure journal. Indeed, a later writer (Zurcher) criticised one of Blake's papers on the same grounds, and then suggested that an event such as this might easily happen to any of us. Despite their apparent conflict, each of these individuals did agree, of course, that a thorough review of the literature on any given topic is necessary to good research and reporting. Our purpose here is not to pour salt on wounds, but rather to illustrate our raison d'être for presenting the material below.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 14 no. 0
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 10 December 2018

Abubakar Sadiq Mahmoud, Muizz O. Sanni-Anibire, Mohammad A. Hassanain and Wahhaj Ahmed

The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive list of key performance indicators (KPIs) that can be employed in determining the functional performance of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive list of key performance indicators (KPIs) that can be employed in determining the functional performance of academic and research laboratory facilities.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employed a two-phase approach. First, a thorough literature review was conducted to identify potential KPIs specific to the performance of laboratory facilities. This was followed by an assessment of the KPIs by 12 respondents including 6 professionals and 6 users. The KPIs were arranged in the form of a questionnaire survey containing response columns for agree/disagree, and importance rating scales for evaluation. The relative importance index values were also computed.

Findings

The result of the study was a comprehensive list of 161 KPIs classified into nine categories including: space, access/circulation, utilities and waste, environmental conditions, furniture, appearance/finishes/image, communications, storage within the space and special building features. These KPIs were perceived to be at varying levels of importance by the respondents.

Originality/value

Though previous studies developed KPIs for the performance of facilities, these KPIs are not universal. Thus, the originality of this study is in its identification of a comprehensive set of KPIs unique to the design, evaluation and management of research and academic laboratory facilities.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

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Book part
Publication date: 24 May 2017

Daniele Morselli

This chapter proposes that enterprise education when applied to vocational education should be reconsidered according to a capability approach. This approach aims to…

Abstract

This chapter proposes that enterprise education when applied to vocational education should be reconsidered according to a capability approach. This approach aims to improve students’ active participation and also their ability to make informed choices. Moreover, we believe that enterprise education needs an underpinning learning theory which can account for the collective nature of learning, innovation and movement across organisations. This new theoretical framework can be expansive learning. This chapter describes a case study carried out in 2014 in an Italian vocational course in hospitality. It documents the implementation of the theory of expansive learning for enterprise education within a series of workshops and evidences how a capabilities approach has been effectively utilised. During work experience, vocational students belong simultaneously to diverse activity systems such as school and work, which creates discontinuities in action and interaction. The basic principle of the workshops is that with the help of the researcher, vocational students, teachers and work tutors discuss the issues that students are having during work experience.

This chapter begins with a discussion on the role of enterprise education in vocational education, and continues by showing how the capability approach can contribute to education and entrepreneurship. The third section explains why and how the theory of expansive learning can underpin entrepreneurship education and how it was utilised in the model of workshops which incorporate enterprise education theory. Section four describes the case study in an Italian vocational secondary institute. The data presented includes excerpts of discussions during the fourth workshop, the student’s answer to the final questionnaire and the follow-up after two years. The conclusion draws out the learning mechanisms which characterised the workshops, what the students learnt in term of enterprise education and how the workshops are connected to a capability approach.

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