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Book part
Publication date: 21 May 2021

Peterson K. Ozili

Purpose: This chapter discusses the need for climate change risk mitigation and why it is not the responsibility of Central Banks to mitigate climate change risk.…

Abstract

Purpose: This chapter discusses the need for climate change risk mitigation and why it is not the responsibility of Central Banks to mitigate climate change risk.

Methodology: This chapter uses critical discourse analysis to explain why central banks should not have the responsibility for climate change risk mitigation.

Findings: This chapter argues that the responsibility for managing climate change risk should lie with elected officials, other groups and institutions but not Central Banks. Elected officials, or politicians, should be held responsible to deal with the consequence of climate change events. Also, international organizations and everybody can take responsibility for climate change while the Central Bank can provide assistance – but Central Banks should not lead the climate policy making or mitigation agenda.

Implication: The policy implication is that the responsibility for climate change risk mitigation should be shifted to politicians who are elected officials of the people. Also, international climate change organizations or groups can take responsibility for mitigating the climate change risk of member countries. Finally, citizens in a country or region should have equal responsibility for climate change. Climate information should be provided to every citizen to help them prepare for future climatic conditions.

Originality: This chapter propagates the idea that Central Banks should take a lead role in dealing with the problems of climate change. This chapter is the first chapter to contest a Central Bank-led climate change risk mitigation agenda.

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Book part
Publication date: 25 August 2014

Fouad H. Beseiso

This chapter’s goal is to define the kind of seeds to be planted for moving forward in the safe and stable drive toward a leading central banking role directed at…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter’s goal is to define the kind of seeds to be planted for moving forward in the safe and stable drive toward a leading central banking role directed at achieving a sustained Islamic banking and finance development within the global financial system. The system witnessed the input of Islamic banking with its fruitful contribution as a feasible banking structure in both implementing agreed reforms and shaping the next steps directed toward crisis prevention and crisis resolution.

Approach and Methodology

The adopted approach is based upon scientific conceptual basis as well as the practical experience related to the central banking role and Islamic banking evolution. This chapter will define the strategic role of Central Banks and highlight the conceptual basis governing the leading role of central banks as well as the practical basis derived from our central banking and Islamic banking experience.

Contribution

In light of the conceptual and practical basis for enabling an efficient and effective role of Central Banks as a regulatory body in shaping the future of the Islamic Financial System. Legal, institutional and managerial strategic determinants for this role have been defined.

The analytical work of this chapter crystallises in a pioneering initiative the main determining factors governing the role of central banks as the main regulatory body for Islamic banking, and how this role could be effective in affecting the future role to be played by the Islamic banks in the global financial system. Also, to this end, the integrated required role by central banks, public policies, multilateral institutions and Islamic banks are illustrated.

Findings

Energy and cooperative hard work and commitment from all players, including the regulators of Islamic banks supported by public policies, international and multilateral institutions and members of the Islamic banking family is thought to be the main determining factor for transforming the Islamic banking family into one that will make the Islamic people and all humanity – through the global financial system – live with more stability, welfare and happiness.

Details

The Developing Role of Islamic Banking and Finance: From Local to Global Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-817-4

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Abstract

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Central Bank Policy: Theory and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-751-6

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Article
Publication date: 9 June 2020

Ansgar Belke and Edoardo Beretta

The paper explores the precarious balance between modernizing monetary systems by means of digital currencies (either issued by the central bank itself or independently…

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Abstract

Purpose

The paper explores the precarious balance between modernizing monetary systems by means of digital currencies (either issued by the central bank itself or independently) and safeguarding financial stability as also ensured by tangible payment (and saving) instruments like paper money.

Design/methodology/approach

Which aspects of modern payment systems could contribute to improve the way of functioning of today's globalized economy? And, which might even threaten the above-mentioned instable equilibrium? This survey paper aims, precisely, at giving some preliminary answers to a complex – therefore, ongoing – debate at scientific as well as banking and political levels.

Findings

The coexistence of State's money (i.e. “legal tender”) and cryptocurrencies can have a disciplining effect on central banks. Nevertheless, there are still high risks connected to the introduction of central bank digital currency, which should be by far not considered to be a perfect substitute of current cash. At the same time, cryptocurrencies issued by central banks might be exposed to the drawbacks of cryptocurrencies without benefiting from correspondingly strong advantages. A well-governed two-tier system to be achieved through innovation in payment infrastructures might be, in turn, more preferable. Regulated competition by new players combined with “traditional” deposits and central bank elements remains essential, although central banks should embrace the technologies underlying cryptocurrencies, because risk payment service providers could move to other currency areas considered to be more appealing for buyers and sellers.

Research limitations/implications

We do not see specific limitations besides the fact that the following is for sure a broad field of scientific research to be covered, which is at the same time at the origin of ongoing developments and findings. Originality and implications of the paper are, instead, not only represented by its conclusions (which highlight the role of traditional payment instruments and stress why the concept of “money” still has to have specific features) but also by its approach of recent literature's review combined with equally strong logical-analytical insights.

Practical implications

In the light of these considerations, even the role of traditional payment systems like paper money is by far not outdated or cannot be – at this point, at least – replaced by central bank digital currencies (whose features based on dematerialization despite being issued and guaranteed by a public authority are very different).

Social implications

No matter which form it might assume is what differentiates economic from barter transactions. This conclusion is by far not tautological or self-evident since the notion of money has historically been a great object of scientific discussion. In the light of increasingly modern payment instruments, there is no question that money and the effectiveness of related monetary policies have to be also explored from a social perspective according to different monetary scenarios, ranging from central bank digital currencies to private currencies and cash restrictions/abolition.

Originality/value

The originality/value of the following article is represented by the fact that it (1) refers to some of the most relevant and recent contributions to this research field, (2) moves from payment systems in general to their newest trends like cryptocurrencies, cash restrictions (or, even, abolition proposals) and monetary policy while (3) combining all elements to reach a common picture. The paper aims at being a comprehensive contribution dealing with "money" in its broadest but also newest sense.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 47 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 17 December 2021

Md. Kausar Alam

The purpose of this study is to propose a centralized Shariah governance framework (CSGF) for the Islamic banks and Shariah governance in Bangladesh as such, the existence…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to propose a centralized Shariah governance framework (CSGF) for the Islamic banks and Shariah governance in Bangladesh as such, the existence and practices of the Shariah governance framework (SGF) are decentralized and diversified.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper implements a qualitative case study approach to develop a CSGF for the Islamic banks in Bangladesh. The data has been collected from 17 respondents through semi-structured interviews with a combination of regulators, Shariah supervisory board members, Shariah department executives and Shariah experts from the central bank and Islamic banks in Bangladesh.

Findings

This study proposes a CSGF which is comprising two-tier Shariah supervisory boards (SSBs), i.e. institutional SSB and centralized Shariah supervisory board (CSSB) under the central bank to monitor the overall functions of SG. The study recommends the setting up of four departments under the central bank to enhance the functions of CSSB. Besides, the central bank can introduce Shariah rating, external Shariah audit and external Shariah review through Islamic rating agencies and Islamic Chartered Accountant Firms for transparency and quality compliance which are more desired from the public and other stakeholders.

Research limitations/implications

The study significantly contributed to the national and global regulatory bodies by providing a structural CSGF for the Islamic banks to perform their functions and activities smoothly.

Practical implications

The study outlines a CSGF for the Islamic banks in Bangladesh as the existing practices are diversified and decentralized. Therefore, this framework would be helpful for the central bank and Islamic banks in Bangladesh to promote unique practices of the SGF.

Originality/value

This is the first research that provides a structure of CSGF for Islamic banks in Bangladesh, while the central bank of Malaysia developed the first SGF. There is no study concerning the demographic figure of CSGF of Islamic banks in the entire literature.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Osama Omar Jaara and Abdelrahim M. Kadomi

This paper aims to investigate Jordan’s framework specifics of the anti-money laundering (AML) policy and factors related to the Central Bank instructions on money laundering.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate Jordan’s framework specifics of the anti-money laundering (AML) policy and factors related to the Central Bank instructions on money laundering.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire has been distributed to a random data sample of 100 branch bank managers and supervisors who have a sufficient experience in this issue, and a t-test statistical technique has been used.

Findings

The results revealed that commercial banks of Jordan are committed to the instruction of the central bank, and they are highly qualified in all investigated measures.

Practical implications

This study supports the Central Bank of Jordan’s efforts in combating money laundering, which encourage all commercial banks of one country to follow the same adopted regulations to identify and report transactions of suspicious behaviour: investigate capability of the tellers and customer account representatives to report such activities, use AML software, filter customer’s data classify available information according to levels of suspicion or based on the uncertain customers without being subject to the institutional secrecy jurisdiction and to work under cooperative management.

Originality/value

It has been recommended to utilize more advanced technology, intensify training and ensure for more knowing clients’ knowledge. The importance of this paper is to insure the following: first, the banking system is obliged to recognize and report suspicious money laundering transactions, regarding up to date the FATFA equivalence status of other countries; second, increase the awareness and ensure the central bank efforts’ success; third, assure the adequacy of different issues such as the internal control system tools; devices or tools availability; and sufficient employees’ qualifications in facing launderers attempts; fourth, to be sure that suspected transactions are checked against any commercial bank records; finally, to be sure that commercial banks are giving enough considerations to all the AML proactive actions such as the regulations of checking while opening an account, accepting money on deposit, giving loans, issuing a debit card, traveller’s check and collecting enough information about new clients.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2019

Rosaria Rita Canale and Rajmund Mirdala

The role of money and monetary policy of the central bank in pursuing macroeconomic stability has significantly changed over the period since the end of World War II…

Abstract

The role of money and monetary policy of the central bank in pursuing macroeconomic stability has significantly changed over the period since the end of World War II. Globalization, liberalization, integration, and transition processes generally shaped the crucial milestones of the macroeconomic development and substantial features of economic policy and its framework in Europe. Policy-driven changes together with variety of exogenous shocks significantly affected the key features of macroeconomic environment on the European continent that fashioned the framework and design of monetary policies.

This chapter examines the key basis of the central bank’s monetary policy on its way to pursue and preserve the internal and external stability of the purchasing power of money. Substantial elements of the monetary policy like objectives and strategies are not only generally introduced but also critically discussed according to their accuracy, suitability, and reliability in the changing macroeconomic conditions. Brief overview of the Eurozone common monetary policy milestones and the past Eastern bloc countries’ experience with a variety of exchange rate regimes provides interesting empirical evidence on origins and implications of vital changes in the monetary policy conduction in Europe and the Eurozone.

Details

Fiscal and Monetary Policy in the Eurozone: Theoretical Concepts and Empirical Evidence
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-793-7

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Book part
Publication date: 21 May 2021

Peterson K. Ozili

Purpose: This chapter discusses some policy options that central banks may find useful in dealing with climate change risk in the financial sector.Methodology: This…

Abstract

Purpose: This chapter discusses some policy options that central banks may find useful in dealing with climate change risk in the financial sector.

Methodology: This chapter uses discursive analysis to suggest policy options which central banks can use to deal with the risk of climate change in the financial sector.

Findings: Five policy options are proposed in the chapter, which includes: imposing a climate change capital surcharge; impose a fixed-rate risk capital – based on Tier 2 capital; a reduction in lending to industries whose activities destroy the environment and climate; creating a climate bank; and requiring financial institutions to relocate their important assets to areas less prone to climate change events.

Implication: Several policy experiments are needed to identify the best policy option that works best for each country while taking into account the unique financial sector, financial system, and climate change history of each country.

Originality: Central banks play an important role in regulating the financial sector and in managing its inherent risks, yet there are no studies that suggest policy solutions to help central banks and other financial sector regulators deal with the risk that climate change poses to the financial sector. This chapter suggests policy options that central banks can use to deal with the risk that climate change poses to the financial sector.

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 18 March 2020

Zaheer Anwer, Shabeer Khan and Muhammad Abu Bakar

The purpose of this study is to document how a central bank can perform its primary and secondary functions in a Sharīʿah-compliant manner. It also seeks to investigate…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to document how a central bank can perform its primary and secondary functions in a Sharīʿah-compliant manner. It also seeks to investigate the outcomes of the experiments of Muslim-majority countries in this regard.

Design/methodology/approach

As a first step, a detailed review of existing literature is conducted, which discusses the views of scholars and practitioners on the central banking mechanism in a fully Sharīʿah-compliant financial system. Moving further, the case studies of Iran, Sudan and Pakistan are presented to highlight experiences of regulators from three Muslim-majority countries, which aimed to achieve full compliance with Sharīʿah (Islamic law) principles related to Islamic finance. To evaluate their models, an assessment of their practices is performed in the light of Sharīʿah rules and principles based on existing literature. Finally, the issues involved in establishing a Sharīʿah-compliant central bank (SCCB) are discussed and improvements are suggested.

Findings

It is found that Iran played an effective role in pursuing broader objectives of monetary policy by setting priorities for credit allocation and assisting the government in reducing expenses; however, with respect to instruments, its experience is limited to the rebranding of conventional products. Sudan has not only used monetary policy to effectively curb inflation but also it has introduced various indirect instruments to perform monetary operations. Pakistan succeeded in formulating a theoretical roadmap to establish a SCCB but the desired objectives could not be achieved because of multiple factors.

Practical implications

This study has important policy implications for regulators and policymakers from Muslim countries, who can use the findings in shaping effective Sharīʿah-compliant central banking practices in their respective countries.

Originality/value

This study discusses the salient features of an important Islamic financial institution, the central bank and evaluates the experiments of three Muslim-majority countries in implementing Sharīʿah-compliant central banking practices. To the best of the knowledge, this evaluation has not been performed in the existing literature and the present study fills in this gap.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2019

Perry Warjiyo and Solikin M. Juhro

Abstract

Details

Central Bank Policy: Theory and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-751-6

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