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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2020

Merve Kılıç, Ali Uyar, Cemil Kuzey and Abdullah S. Karaman

The objective of this study is to investigate whether the institutional environment is associated with the adoption of integrated reporting.

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this study is to investigate whether the institutional environment is associated with the adoption of integrated reporting.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample of the study is based on the firms included in the list of Fortune Global 500. The logistic regression analysis was run to test the proposed hypotheses.

Findings

The findings indicated that the code-law orientation and strength of the institutional quality are significantly associated (i.e. positively and negatively, respectively) with the integrated reporting of Fortune 500 companies. Firms are motivated for more transparency in stakeholder-oriented and weakly regulated contexts. Thus, stakeholder pressure is more influential than shareholder interest in motivating or forcing firms to issue integrated reports. Besides, there appears to be a trade-off between the public sector and the private sector in terms of ensuring an accountable and transparent business environment. If the public sector does not undertake its role in ensuring a transparent business environment, the private sector fills the gap. The results are robust to alternative sampling and methodologies.

Research limitations/implications

This study implied that the stakeholder orientation of countries fosters the transparency and accountability of firms. Corporate behavior is impacted by the institutional strength or weakness of nations. The institutional theory provides an appropriate ground to understand drivers of corporate reporting practices of firms beyond firm-level characteristics.

Practical implications

The adoption of integrated reporting framework by Fortune 500 companies can be leveraged to alleviate concerns about their social and environmental impacts. Policy-makers in the countries which have a weak institutional environment force or encourage their firms to increasingly meet the transparency and accountability demands of society.

Social implications

The research findings might play an encouraging role in that various stakeholders (i.e. customers, public, civil organizations and press) should undertake active roles and responsibilities to encourage firms to behave in socially and environmentally responsible ways.

Originality/value

This study adds to the literature by examining the influence of the institutional environment on the adoption of integrated reporting, using recent international data, and focusing on the largest companies according to the Fortune's annual Global 500 list. This study is one of the first to examine the association between a set of governance characteristics (i.e. board size, board independence and board diversity) and integrated reporting adoption.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Merve Kılıç and Cemil Kuzey

This study aims to include two primary goals. First to determine the board characteristics of listed companies in Turkey and second to investigate the effect of board…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to include two primary goals. First to determine the board characteristics of listed companies in Turkey and second to investigate the effect of board gender diversity on the performance of these companies.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses an instrumental variables regression analysis to investigate the relationship between board gender diversity and firm performance using the data from 2008-2012 of the entities listed on the Borsa Istanbul.

Findings

The results indicate that the boards of these companies in Turkey are male-dominated. Moreover, this study shows that the inclusion of female directors is positively related to the financial performance of firms, as measured by the return on assets, the return on equity and the return on sales.

Originality/value

Limited empirical studies have been conducted on the relationship between board gender diversity and firm performance in emerging economies. Therefore, there is still no consensus regarding the link between board gender diversity and firm financial performance based upon the mixed and sometimes contradictory results in prior research. Therefore, this study extends the current literature in the context of Turkey, showing that a female member on the board can enhance the financial performance of a company.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 January 2020

Merve Kılıç, Ali Uyar and Cemil Kuzey

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the ethics and accountability environment influences the voluntary assurance demand for integrated reports through the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the ethics and accountability environment influences the voluntary assurance demand for integrated reports through the lens of institutional theory.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used an international sample of 192 companies that have registered in the International Integrated Reporting Council’s (IIRC) early examples database and that published integrated reports during the years 2011–2016. Binary logistic regression as well as Instrumental Variables (IV) regression with Probit and GMM estimators were employed to test the proposed hypotheses.

Findings

The results confirm that assurance of integrated reports serves as a response to the absence or incompetence of formal and informal institutions that facilitate private contracting. Specifically, the authors found that firms tend to assure their integrated reports in business environments that are characterized by weaker ethical behaviors, less effective boards, poorer auditing and reporting standards, and insufficient protection of the rights of minority shareholders by the legal system.

Research limitations/implications

This study responds to the research calls upon integrated reporting assurance by investigating the underlying drivers of and motives for voluntary assurance on integrated reports.

Practical implications

The findings provide practical implications for firms, regulators and assurance firms. Firms can utilize the results of the study in determining their corporate policies and strategies regarding whether to undertake assurance on integrated reports. Regulators can also consider the results in shaping and improving the institutional ethical and accountability environment of their countries. Further, assurance firms can use these results to help position themselves and guide their market entry decisions.

Originality/value

This study adds to the understanding of institutional factors that impact the assurance of integrated reports which has been rarely examined by prior research. In particular, this is one of the few attempts to examine the link between institutional ethics and accountability environment and the voluntary assurance demand in an international context.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 11 April 2018

Merve Kılıç and Cemil Kuzey

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether corporate governance characteristics impact the voluntary disclosure of carbon emissions.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether corporate governance characteristics impact the voluntary disclosure of carbon emissions.

Design/methodology/approach

This empirical research was carried out in two stages. Initially, the carbon disclosures data were sourced from the annual and stand-alone sustainability reports of Turkish non-financial companies listed on Borsa Istanbul during 2011-2015. Later, the corporate governance characteristics that influence carbon disclosures were examined using panel data regression models.

Findings

The empirical findings of this study suggested that entities with a higher number of independent directors on their boards were more likely to respond to the Carbon Disclosure Project. In addition, board nationality diversity and the existence of a sustainability committee had a significant positive impact on the propensity to disclose carbon emissions and the extent of those disclosures.

Originality/value

This research provides empirical evidence of the determinants of carbon emission disclosures, which could be useful for organizations and regulatory bodies. Such an understanding is crucial to specify necessary policies that will provide emission reduction practices and policies for entities. This paper fills some of the gap in the literature by concentrating on the association between corporate governance characteristics and disclosures of a more specific environmental issue, being carbon emissions.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 November 2021

Ali Uyar, Merve Kilic and Cemil Kuzey

Drawing on neo-institutional, stakeholder, social contract and contingency theories, the objective of this study is to examine whether cultural values across countries may…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on neo-institutional, stakeholder, social contract and contingency theories, the objective of this study is to examine whether cultural values across countries may influence decisions to assure integrated reports.

Design/methodology/approach

For this purpose, the authors have collected integrated reporting assurance, national culture and firm-specific data from several sources for the years ranging between 2011 and 2016 and have performed pooled and panel logistic regression analyses.

Findings

The authors found that corporations established in countries where the following characteristics prevail have higher tendencies to assure integrated reports: high collectivism among people, low power distance, strong feminine values rather than masculine values, high uncertainty avoidance, pursuance of short-term goals rather than long-term and a low level of indulgence.

Research limitations/implications

The study is not free from limitations. First, the authors were only able to obtain assurance data for the years between 2011 and 2016 since 2011 was the initial year in which integrated reporting was adopted. Second, culture variables used throughout the study remained the same for each year due to the unavailability of differing data. This was noted in prior studies as well; thus, this is not an exception. Third, the assumption that all companies in a country have the same culture score is inherent in the scoring system of countries (Orij, 2010).

Practical implications

Based on the results, the authors drew implications for organizations, policymakers and assurance service providers. Multinational corporations can benefit from the outcome of this study by considering national cultures in formulating their corporate strategies. Finally, assurance service providers can position themselves in the marketplace by the findings of this study.

Originality/value

This paper aims to enhance the comprehension of corporate reporting practices by companies that operate in different countries, with necessarily varying cultural values. To the best knowledge of the authors, no prior study has yet examined the impact of national culture on the assurance of integrated reports.

Details

Management Decision, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 February 2021

Nuri Gökhan Torlak, Cemil Kuzey, Muhammet Sait Dinç and Ali Haydar Güngörmüş

The paper aims to analyze the relationships between ethical leadership (EL), job satisfaction (JS), affective commitment (AC) and turnover intention (TI) that might make…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to analyze the relationships between ethical leadership (EL), job satisfaction (JS), affective commitment (AC) and turnover intention (TI) that might make accountants quit withdrawal and become productive and useful in private organizations operating in Istanbul.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through an online survey using a simple random sampling methodology, obtained from 153 accountants working in companies in Istanbul. The methodology included descriptive statistics, factor analysis, structural equation modeling and mediation analysis.

Findings

Concerning direct relationships between EL, JS, AC and TI, EL has significant positive associations with JS and AC, whereas EL has a significant negative association with TI. JS has a significant positive association with AC, whereas JS has a significant negative association with TI. Also, AC has a weak significant negative association with TI. Given indirect relationships among EL, JS, AC and TI, JS and AC mediate the relationship between EL and TI. Finally, a similarity is found when comparing Generation X and Generation Y in terms of overall JS, AC and TI.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited solely to companies functioning in Istanbul and incorporates a low number of respondents. Therefore, the results cannot be considered to be accurate for the whole country. The study might guide both private and public organizations in which owners/managers develop strategic plans.

Originality/value

The study fills the gap in research on organizational behavior where little has existed until now that probes the EL–JS–AC–TI links in Turkey. A few studies measure the TIs of accountants. Furthermore, EL and AC are rarely evaluated in the field of accounting in Turkey.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 November 2018

N. Gökhan Torlak, Cemil Kuzey and Maral Ragom

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influences of human resource management (HRM) practices on organizational commitment (OC), individual job performance (IJP…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influences of human resource management (HRM) practices on organizational commitment (OC), individual job performance (IJP) and organizational performance (OP) and the effects of OC on IJP and OP at travel agencies in Iran and Turkey. Given research site observation, improving HRM practices fostering OC, IJP and OP was essential to high service quality in hospitality industry.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through a survey based on interview and e-mail from 440 employees working at travel agencies in both countries. Analysis methodology included demographic statistics, descriptive statistics, factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis.

Findings

Only reward (RE), teamwork (TW), job description (JD), delegation (DL) and career management (CM) influenced affective commitment (AC); JD and CM affected continuance commitment (CC); and recruitment and selection (RS), RE, salary and wage (SW), TW, DL, job security (JS) and CM influenced normative commitment (NC) significantly and positively. Likewise, only RS, TR, SW, TW, DL and CM affected IJP; and TR, JS and CM affected OP significantly and positively. Finally, AC, CC and NC influenced IJP and only AC and CC impacted OP significantly and positively.

Research limitations/implications

Sample and number of respondents were limited. Generalization of findings was not possible. E-mail respondents raised the problem of who filled the form. Scales did not include personality traits, socio-cultural features and economic conditions which should be explored. However, the research provided recommendations to travel agencies in both countries.

Originality/value

This study filled the gap in hospitality industry in Iran and Turkey where research works into wide-ranging HRM practices–OC–IJP–OP links were few and far between.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 67 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 January 2019

N. Gökhan Torlak and Cemil Kuzey

The purpose of this paper is to get an insight into which form leadership either transactional leadership (TAL) or transformational leadership (TFL) is most effective in…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to get an insight into which form leadership either transactional leadership (TAL) or transformational leadership (TFL) is most effective in the educational sector of Pakistan and to determine the impact of each on the employee job satisfaction (EJS) and employee job performance (EJP). Given research site observation, appropriate leadership was essential to high-quality education in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are collected through a survey based on e-mail/interview from 189 employees working at private education institutes in Pakistan. Analysis methodology includes frequency analysis, descriptive statistics, paired samples t-test, Pearson correlation analysis and regression analysis.

Findings

Only management by exception (MBE) and idealized influence (II), inspirational motivation (IM), intellectual stimulation (IS) and individualized consideration (IC) had significant positive association with both EJS and EJP. MBE had a positive significant effect on both EJS and EJP, while contingent rewards had no significant relation with EJS and weak positive significant association with EJP. Furthermore, II, IM, IS and IC had a positive significant impact on EJS and EJP.

Research limitations/implications

Respondents were from major private educational institutes in Islamabad and Lahore. The leadership style – TAL–TFL – was the sole variable to judge EJS/EJP. Multifaceted populations’ perspectives might enhance the attributes of TAL/TFL. This study might influence the authorities to adopt the right leadership style securing high-quality education system for both private and public education institutes in Pakistan.

Originality/value

The study filled the gap in the educational sector of Pakistan, where research works into leadership styles-satisfaction-performance links were few and far between.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 68 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 March 2019

Cemil Kuzey, Ali Uyar and Dursun Delen

The paper aims to identify and critically analyze the factors influencing cost system functionality (CSF) using several machine learning techniques including decision…

509

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to identify and critically analyze the factors influencing cost system functionality (CSF) using several machine learning techniques including decision trees, support vector machines and logistic regression.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used a self-administered survey method to collect the necessary data from companies conducting business in Turkey. Several prediction models are developed and tested; a series of sensitivity analyses is performed on the developed prediction models to assess the ranked importance of factors/variables.

Findings

Certain factors/variables influence CSF much more than others. The findings of the study suggest that utilization of management accounting practices require a functional cost system, which is supported by a comprehensive cost data management process (i.e. acquisition, storage and utilization).

Research limitations/implications

The underlying data were collected using a questionnaire survey; thus, it is subjective which reflects the perceptions of the respondents. Ideally, it is expected to reflect the objective of the practices of the firms. Second, the authors have measured CSF it on a “Yes” or “No” basis which does not allow survey respondents reply in between them; thus, it might have limited the choices of the respondents. Third, the Likert scales adopted in the measurement of the other constructs might be limiting the answers of the respondents.

Practical implications

Information technology plays a very important role for the success of CSF practices. That is, successful implementation of a functional cost system relies heavily on a fully integrated information infrastructure capable of constantly feeding CSF with accurate, relevant and timely data.

Originality/value

In addition to providing evidence regarding the factors underlying CSF based on a broad range of industries interesting finding, this study also illustrates the viability of machine learning methods as a research framework to critically analyze domain specific data.

Details

International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 February 2022

Ali Uyar, Cemil Kuzey and Merve Kilic Karamahmutoglu

Drawing on institutional theory and knowledge spillover, the study aims to examine whether there is a causality relationship between macroeconomic factors and research…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on institutional theory and knowledge spillover, the study aims to examine whether there is a causality relationship between macroeconomic factors and research productivity.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses fixed-effects (FE) panel regression analysis, utilizing 1,614 country–year observations and 541,732 citable publications between 1996 and 2017, to explore the relationship between macroeconomic factors, research and development (R&D) expenditure and research productivity in economics and finance.

Findings

The results highlight a two-way relationship between R&D expenditure and economic development and research productivity. However, research productivity has no relationship with foreign direct investment (FDI), trade and financial development. In terms of remaining macroeconomic factors, financial development, trade and FDI have insignificant associations with research productivity in both directions of causality. In line with institutional theory, the findings support the notion that economically more developed countries and countries dedicating greater R&D funds have more potential to support research activities. On the other hand, in line with knowledge spillover, the research output of nations contributes to the economic development and expansion of R&D budgets. The results are robust to alternative methodology, endogeneity concerns, additional control variables, alternative sampling and alternative research productivity proxy.

Research limitations/implications

The study suggests practical implications for nations to formulate macro-policies and a better research environment for academicians and to establish links between academic research and macroeconomic factors.

Originality/value

First, as there is limited research focusing on the bidirectional causality between the macroeconomic environment and academic research activity, the study adds to the understanding of the causality relationship between these two constructs. Second, it examines the bidirectional relationship between macroeconomic factors and research output at a global scale, while prior studies mostly focus on a single country, or a certain region or continent. Further, it is one of the few attempts particularly focusing on economics and finance research's bidirectional relation with the macroeconomic environment.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 48 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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