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Article

Lina Pileliene and Viktorija Grigaliunaite

The purpose of this paper is to develop guidelines for the selection of a female advertising spokesperson and brand position regarding the selected spokesperson in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop guidelines for the selection of a female advertising spokesperson and brand position regarding the selected spokesperson in the context of fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) advertising.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents findings using both neuromarketing and traditional marketing research methods.

Findings

The findings are based on the results of P300 event-related brain potentials, eye-tracking experiments and a questionnaire research. It was concluded that a famous female spokesperson indeed has a significant effect on FMCG advertising effectiveness.

Practical implications

The selection of a female celebrity spokesperson when seeking FMCG advertising effectiveness depends on the primary determined aim of marketing communication. If the aim of the advertising campaign is to form attitude, then selecting a celebrity as the FMCG advertising spokesperson is recommended, but if the aim of the FMCG advertising campaign is to enhance brand awareness, it is recommended to select a non-celebrity spokesperson. Furthermore, the brand should be presented at the top of the advertisement’s layout, particularly when a celebrity is chosen as a spokesperson because this allows lowering the possibility of the “vampire effect” occurrence.

Originality/value

As a study on the effect of a female spokesperson on FMCG advertising effectiveness, this research will be of academic interest, integrating both marketing theory and neuroscience to analyze and evaluate consumer behavior. This research is also relevant to businesses, because it provides guidelines for the selection of female advertising spokespersons in the context of FMCG advertising.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article

Mark Toncar, Jane S. Reid and Cynthia E. Anderson

The purpose of the paper is to investigate the consequences of using national celebrities, local celebrities and disaster victims as spokespersons in a public service…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to investigate the consequences of using national celebrities, local celebrities and disaster victims as spokespersons in a public service radio announcement (PSA) soliciting contributions for victims of Hurricane Katrina.

Design/methodology/approach

Subjects were exposed to one of three public service announcements and were then asked to report their reactions to the messages. Differences in the self‐reported reactions of subjects were used to test a series of hypotheses regarding the effectiveness of the three different types of spokespersons.

Findings

The paper finds that the hurricane victim was the most credible and believable spokesperson. The national celebrity, Ashlee Simpson, was the least credible and the least believable. The local celebrity was more credible and believable than the national celebrity, but no more so than the hurricane victim.

Research limitations/implications

In this paper a small student sample was used in an experimental setting involving one set of stimuli and one set of spokespersons. It cannot be said that the results would generalize to other celebrities, non‐celebrities, video formats, or non‐experimental settings.

Practical implications

The paper shows that nonprofit agencies considering using celebrity spokespersons in PSAs should do so with caution. There is no evidence that they increase their effectiveness and, at least in the case of the national celebrity, the use of national celebrities may reduce the effectiveness of the PSA.

Originality/value

The paper applies the concepts developed in the study of celebrity spokespersons in advertising and applies them to PSAs. The effects of celebrity spokespersons in PSAs are not the same as in conventional advertising messages.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article

Gail Tom, Rebecca Clark, Laura Elmer, Edward Grech, Joseph Masetti and Harmona Sandhar

Reports on a study designed to analyse the effectiveness of realand created spokespersons in advertisements. Compares male and femalespokespersons′ effectiveness by…

Abstract

Reports on a study designed to analyse the effectiveness of real and created spokespersons in advertisements. Compares male and female spokespersons′ effectiveness by audience gender. Concludes that celebrities can be used to gain attention and maintain sales, while created spokespersons′ effectiveness is in establishing a lifelong link with the product.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article

Jung-Gyo Lee and Jaejin Park

The primary question motivating this study is how message characteristics influence the persuasiveness of celebrity athlete endorsements as used in print advertising for a…

Abstract

The primary question motivating this study is how message characteristics influence the persuasiveness of celebrity athlete endorsements as used in print advertising for a sports drink. In particular, this study examines the extent to which celebrity endorsement of a product influences the effectiveness of advertising under varying degrees of perceived fit between the celebrity and the product image. The findings indicate that the process of integrating endorsement strength with given endorsers and products can substantially enhance the effectiveness of celebrity advertising. It is found that the interactive effect of endorsement strength and celebrity-product match is more pronounced among consumers with high product involvement than among those with low involvement.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article

Jasmina Ilicic, Stacey M Baxter and Alicia Kulczynski

The purpose of this paper is to compare the influence of spokesperson appearance (visual congruence) and the sounds contained in a spokesperson’s name (verbal congruence…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the influence of spokesperson appearance (visual congruence) and the sounds contained in a spokesperson’s name (verbal congruence) on consumer perceptions of spokesperson–product fit.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 ensured that verbal congruence impacted perceptions of spokesperson–product fit. Experiment 2 compared the effect of verbal congruence versus traditional match-up (visual congruence) on perceptions of spokesperson–product fit. The mediating role of spokesperson–product fit on attitude towards the advertisement and the moderating role of need for cognition (NFC) was also tested.

Findings

Findings indicate that verbal congruence influences consumer perceptions of fit, regardless of visual congruence. Perceptions of spokesperson–product fit also act as mediators between visual and verbal congruence and attitude towards the advertisement. However, verbal congruence did not influence consumer perceptions of spokesperson–product fit when the NFC was low.

Research limitations/implications

This research has implications for advertisers and brand managers considering the creation of a name for a non-celebrity spokesperson or the development of a brand/spokes-character. However, this research is limited, as it examines only male names.

Originality/value

This research shows that perceptions of spokesperson and product fit are not only influenced by spokesperson appearance (visual congruence) but also by spokesperson name (verbal congruence). This research also identifies limitations of the applicability of phonetic symbolism theory by identifying a condition under which phonetic symbolism (verbal congruence) exerts no effects on perceptions of spokesperson–product fit.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 49 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article

Brian D. Till and Michael Busler

The importance of fit between the endorser and the endorsed product has been described as the “match‐up hypothesis”. Much “match‐up hypothesis” research has focused on…

Abstract

The importance of fit between the endorser and the endorsed product has been described as the “match‐up hypothesis”. Much “match‐up hypothesis” research has focused on physical attraction. We present two studies which collectively suggest that, while attractive endorsers do positively affect attitude toward the endorsed brand, expertise is a more important dimension for driving the fit between an endorser and a brand. Study One examines physical attractiveness as a match‐up factor. Results indicate a general “attractiveness effect”, but not a match‐up effect based on attractiveness. Study Two considers expertise as the match‐up dimension. A match‐up effect was found based on expertise.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article

Fei Fan

Celebrity endorsement is common in the marketing communications context, especially in the Asian market. Thanks to the popularity of online DIY celebrities, many marketing…

Abstract

Purpose

Celebrity endorsement is common in the marketing communications context, especially in the Asian market. Thanks to the popularity of online DIY celebrities, many marketing communications practitioners have started to involve such celebrities in brand and product endorsement strategies. However, few existing studies have compared the endorsement persuasiveness of online DIY celebrity endorsers with traditional celebrity endorsers, particularly in the Asian market. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to fill the literature gap by examining how consumers perceive and evaluate online DIY and traditional celebrity endorsers.

Design/methodology/approach

In-depth personal interviews were conducted with 15 interviewees with a median age of 23. They were asked to report their overall evaluations and attitudes toward online DIY celebrity endorsers and traditional celebrity endorsers, and their respective endorsement strategies.

Findings

Although the popularity of online DIY celebrities is growing in China, they received a lower level of appreciation from interviewees than traditional celebrities. The persuasiveness of online DIY celebrity endorsers was not as effective as that of traditional celebrity endorsers. Interviewees even held an overall negative attitude toward online DIY celebrities and their endorsements. Interviewees perceived traditional celebrity endorsers more positively, and their endorsements to be more effective, than online DIY celebrity endorsers.

Research limitations/implications

The small sample size may constrain any generalization to be drawn from the findings. Future studies are suggested using survey and experiment methodology to further test and compare the persuasiveness of online DIY and traditional celebrity endorsement.

Practical implications

We suggest communications practitioners continue to use traditional celebrities to improve overall brand image and enhance the target audience’s purchase intention as the exploratory study reveals that audiences have an overall positive experience with traditional celebrities, instead of online DIY celebrities. If online DIY celebrities are preferred in communications strategies, we suggest practitioners carefully select qualified online DIY celebrity endorsers based on image congruence between such online DIY celebrities and the product category in that audiences in the exploratory study are quite cautious when exposed to product endorsement messages from online DIY celebrities. Besides this, audiences have more confidence in product endorsement if there is a fit between online DIY celebrities’ expertise and the endorsed product type.

Originality/value

This is the first qualitative study on consumers’ perception of product endorsement at the level of online DIY and traditional celebrity endorsers.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article

– This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

Design/methodology/approach

This briefing is prepared by an independent writer who adds their own impartial comments and places the articles in context.

Findings

Findings indicate that verbal congruence influences consumer perceptions of fit, regardless of visual congruence. Perceptions of spokesperson-product fit also act as mediators between visual and verbal congruence and attitude toward the advertisement.

Practical implications

The paper provides strategic insights and practical thinking that have influenced some of the world’s leading organizations.

Originality/value

The briefing saves busy executives and researchers hours of reading time by selecting only the very best, most pertinent information and presenting it in a condensed and easy-to-digest format.

Details

Strategic Direction, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0258-0543

Keywords

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Article

James H. Martin

Businesses will spend millions of dollars associating their products with athletes through product endorsements. Finding the “best” athlete to make the endorsement is a…

Abstract

Businesses will spend millions of dollars associating their products with athletes through product endorsements. Finding the “best” athlete to make the endorsement is a crucial decision. Several theoretical perspectives suggest that the sport from which the athlete comes may be an important factor in producing a favorable consumer response. In a study conducted to investigate the effects of the type of sport on endorsement evaluations, results indicated that the image of the sport, independent of the athlete, can contribute significantly to the consumer’s response to an endorsement. The image of the sport can enhance, or detract from, the effects of the personality and appearance of the athlete making the endorsement. These findings suggest the managers should consider the sport, as well as the athlete carefully, when picking a product spokesperson.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 13 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article

Gi-Yong Koo, Jerome Quarterman and E. Newton Jackson

Much of the existing research in sports sponsorship is applied in nature and devoid of serious theoretical insight regarding its role from a marketing communication…

Abstract

Much of the existing research in sports sponsorship is applied in nature and devoid of serious theoretical insight regarding its role from a marketing communication effects standpoint. In this study, Taylor & Crocker's (1981) schema theory is used to interpret the phenomenon that sponsoring events exhibiting a good image fit with the brand can strengthen brand awareness. Since consumers' perceptions of the FIFA World Cup/official partners image fit enhance the brand awareness of sponsoring brands, the results have implications for the FIFA World Cup marketing parties using sports sponsorship as a strategic marketing tool.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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