One of the most important changes in the past few decades influencing the way in which early childhood is experienced in European countries is the dramatic increase of…
One of the most important changes in the past few decades influencing the way in which early childhood is experienced in European countries is the dramatic increase of mothers with young children who are also active in the paid labour force. The Dutch case is exemplary of this change. Dutch women's labour force participation increased from internationally the lowest rate for married women at 7.3% in 1960, to 32.8% in 1987 and to 58.7% in 2005. The latter was above the average participation rate in the European Union (15 countries) (Statistics Netherlands, CBS, 2006). In addition, the proportion of employed mothers with children below the age of 6 more than doubled in less than a decade: from 26% in 1988 to 57% in 1996 (OSA, 1997).1 In 2003, 90% of women in the Netherlands remained in the labour force after giving birth to their first child, although they worked fewer hours (Statistics Netherlands, CBS, 2006). Children who are born in the Netherlands nowadays, therefore, generally have a mother working in the labour market, who has to organise her time around the triple needs of care, income and professional demands. This substantial change from the situation still prevalent in the mid-eighties, is somewhat counter-balanced by changes in fathers’ behaviour following the birth of a child. While in most European countries fathers increase their labour force participation when they have a child (see e.g. Plantenga & Siegel, 2004), an increasing proportion of Dutch fathers on the contrary reduces it. 10% of first-time fathers reduced their working hours when their child was born in 1997, 13% did so in 2003 (Statistics Netherlands, CBS, 2006).2
During service encounters, it has been suggested that emotionally competent employees are likely to succeed in building rapport with their customers, which in turn often…
During service encounters, it has been suggested that emotionally competent employees are likely to succeed in building rapport with their customers, which in turn often leads to customer satisfaction and loyalty. However, these relationships have not been empirically examined. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of customer perceived employee emotional competence (EEC) on satisfaction and loyalty. The paper also examines how and to what extent rapport mediates these effects.
Drawing on the theory of affect‐as‐information, suggesting that emotions inform human behavior, the paper develops a structural model and tests it on a sample of 247 customers in a personal service setting.
Customer perceptions of EEC positively influence customer satisfaction and loyalty. Rapport partially mediates both effects.
The extent to which customers perceive employees as emotionally competent is related to the development of rapport, customer satisfaction, and loyalty. Managers of high‐contact services should therefore pay attention to emotional competence when hiring new employees, and/or encourage and train existing employees to develop this type of competence.
Previous studies have used employee self‐reports or supervisor reports of EEC, both of which have significant limitations when used in service encounters to predict customer outcomes. Furthermore, they essentially capture an employee's potential to behave in an emotionally competent way while service managers are interested in the actual display of emotionally competent behaviors as perceived by customers. Accordingly, to overcome these issues, this study adopts a customer perspective of EEC and uses customer perceptions of EEC to predict customer outcome.
The following bibliography focuses mainly on programs which can run on IBM microcomputers and compatibles under the operating system PC DOS/MS DOS, and which can be used…
The following bibliography focuses mainly on programs which can run on IBM microcomputers and compatibles under the operating system PC DOS/MS DOS, and which can be used in online information and documentation work. They fall into the following categories:
The purpose of this paper is to examine the hypotheses about whether the effects of consumer enjoyment shopping experience, derived from seven aspects of recreational…
The purpose of this paper is to examine the hypotheses about whether the effects of consumer enjoyment shopping experience, derived from seven aspects of recreational shopping (i.e. social aspects of retail environment, service quality, browsing, bargain hunting, social interaction, enduring involvement and brand experience) on consumer attitude towards stores channels are comparable between France and Chinese cosmetic shoppers.
To achieve this objective, a questionnaire of 500 French and 480 Chinese working females were conducted. Both the convergence and habituation theories were applied.
Results of the multiple regression analysis support the above assumptions and suggest that customer enjoyment shopping experience and its relation with consumer attitudes towards store channels in China tends to be more in line with those in developed countries.
The findings presented are the views of women's in‐store enjoyment shopping experiences in two cities in French and Chinese cosmetic markets. To ensure the generalizability of the findings, other products, consumer groups and regions (i.e. Indian etc.) can be envisaged.
Multinational retailers and cosmetics vendors have to recognize these customer enjoyment shopping experiences in both retail settings. In particular in the Chinese retail market, to improve these experiences so as to achieve positive consumer attitude towards retail outlets and finally strike the deal in this numerous market.
This paper is the first to employ convergent and habituation theory to examine the stability or change of the aforesaid relation between China and France. Hence, it adds to international marketing theory concerning the usefulness of these growing important theories in explaining the comparability between developed countries and developing ones in relation between constructs.