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Article
Publication date: 9 December 2014

Catherine E. Marshall, Christina O. Lengyel and Verena H. Menec

The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on body image and aging among older women. Using existing qualitative research, this paper explores how aging affects body…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on body image and aging among older women. Using existing qualitative research, this paper explores how aging affects body image and how women respond to body image issues as they age.

Design/methodology/approach

Multiple databases were used to locate original and review articles on the topics of body image and aging, with a target population of women ages 60 years and older. The findings of the literature search were compiled, summarized and sorted to create themes.

Findings

Women struggle with body image issues throughout their lives. Women tend to perceive age-related changes in appearance negatively, as a threat to their identity and social value. This is due, in part, to the sociocultural environment, which pressures women to “fight” aging and maintain an ideal (young and thin) image at all costs. Some women do come to terms with their aging body and report increased self-acceptance with age. However, others turn to various forms of body work (e.g. dieting, hair dye, makeup) in order to maintain their value in an appearance-based society.

Practical implications

Poor body image can affect older women's emotional, psychological and physical health and overall well-being. Health care professionals, community workers and policy makers need to be made aware of these issues so that they can respond appropriately.

Originality/value

There has been limited research exploring body image among older women. This paper identifies gaps in the literature and suggests avenues for future research in this area.

Details

Ethnicity and Inequalities in Health and Social Care, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0980

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1986

WILLIAM D. GREENFIELD, CATHERINE MARSHALL and DONALD B. REED

This report examines the function of experience in the role of vice‐principal as preparation for the school principalship, proposing that a dysfunctional socialization outcome of…

Abstract

This report examines the function of experience in the role of vice‐principal as preparation for the school principalship, proposing that a dysfunctional socialization outcome of this career entry pattern is the development of a role orientation that emphasizes managing rather than leading the school. The authors differentiate these two dimensions of the administrative role by suggesting that the managerial function emphasizes organizational stability and maintenance of the day‐to‐day operation, and that the leadership function emphasizes improvements in instructional and organizational arrangements facilitating teaching and learning. While a balance in functions is the preferred orientation implicit in theoretical as well as prescriptive models of the principalship, and principals themselves espouse the desirability of an instructional leadership emphasis, most empirical studies of the principalship indicate a substantial skewing of emphasis in the direction of managerial activities. The paper offers an empirically grounded theoretical explanation of this occurrence. Based on data from the studies of the enculturation process and the work activities of vice‐principals, and guided by socialization theory, the report discusses role‐learning implications of experience in the vice‐principalship role and concludes with seven propositions for further study.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2006

Daphnée Rentfrow

Writing in 1995, what seems from our vantage point an almost primitive moment in technological evolution, hypertext theorist, and fiction writer Catherine Marshall, with her…

Abstract

Writing in 1995, what seems from our vantage point an almost primitive moment in technological evolution, hypertext theorist, and fiction writer Catherine Marshall, with her colleague David Levy, presciently described modern libraries;The academic and public libraries most of us have grown up with are the products of innovation begun approximately 150 years ago. We would find libraries that existed prior to that time largely unrecognizable. It is certain that the introduction of digital technologies will again transform libraries, possibly beyond recognition by transforming the mix of materials in their collections and the methods by which these materials are maintained and used. But the better word for these evolving institutions is “libraries,” not digital libraries, for ultimately what must be preserved is the heterogeneity of materials and practices. As library materials and practices of the past have been diverse—more diverse than idealized accounts allow—so they no doubt will remain in the future (Levy and Marshall, 1995, p. 77).By reminding us that libraries were always much more than repositories of collated pages of print, Levy and Marshall highlight the characteristics of modern libraries that mark them not as something new and different, but as something wholly in keeping with the diversity of “traditional” library holdings. “Our idealized image of a library imbues it with qualities of fixity and permanence. This is hardly surprising, since the library is considered to be the Home of the Book, and books are by and large one of the more fixed, more permanent types of documents,” the authors write, but “libraries have always contained materials other than books. Special collections and archives are filled with unbound and handwritten ephemera—correspondence, photographs, and so on … [And] traditional libraries have long contained a diversity of technologies and media; today these include film and video, microfilm and microfiche, vellum and papyrus” (p.77). Now that libraries contain various forms of digital media as standard parts of their collections (electronic journals, electronic catalogs, digital images, digitized sound files), the distinction between “traditional” and “digital” libraries has lost much of its original use, and so has the distinction between traditional and new types of librarians, the stewards of the libraries in any and all forms.

Details

Advances in Librarianship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-007-4

Article
Publication date: 15 June 2010

Amber L. Cushing

The topic of personal archives has mainly been discussed by two research traditions in information science: archives and records management, and personal information management…

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Abstract

Purpose

The topic of personal archives has mainly been discussed by two research traditions in information science: archives and records management, and personal information management. The purpose of this paper is to compare a corpus of the archival literature written by the archival community with the concepts and challenges posed by Catherine Marshall, who exemplifies the personal information management approach. Many of the personal digital archiving challenges that Marshall identifies are related to discussions within the archival community.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to demonstrate the similarities between Marshall's work with the archival discussion about personal archiving, Marshall's challenges, tasks and attributes of personal digital archiving were compared with a total of 33 articles from two library and information science databases.

Findings

Many of the personal digital archiving challenges that Marshall identifies are related to discussions in the archival community. The author suggests that certain aspects of the archival literature may be utilized to address Marshall's identified challenges. Lastly, future collaborations between members of the archival community and members of the personal information management community may prove useful in addressing the challenges of personal digital archiving

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates that two areas of information science share ideas about how to address the issues related to personal archives, but rarely consult one another when writing about personal digital archiving. The author highlights the archives and records management tradition in an attempt to introduce the literature to the broader discussion on personal digital archives being had by the personal information management tradition.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Nicholas Hoover Wilson

This paper considers the East India Company’s emergence as a territorial power from the 1760s until the revocation of most of its commercial functions in 1834. While this period…

Abstract

This paper considers the East India Company’s emergence as a territorial power from the 1760s until the revocation of most of its commercial functions in 1834. While this period has been a key episode for historians of the British Empire and of South Asia, social scientists have struggled with the Company’s ambiguous nature. In this paper, I propose that a profitable way to grasp the Company’s transformation is to consider it as a global strategic action field. This perspective clarifies two key processes in the Company’s transition: the enlargement of its territorial possessions; and the increased exposure of its patrimonial network to intervention from British metropolitan politics. To further suggest the utility of this analytic perspective, I synthesize evidence from various sources, including data concerning the East India Court of Directors and the career histories of Company servants in two of its key administrative regions, Bengal and Madras, during this period of transition.

Details

Chartering Capitalism: Organizing Markets, States, and Publics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-093-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Joe Rich

The purpose of this paper is to challenge Matthew Lorenzon’s contention that the late 1890s outcry demanding Melbourne University music professor G.W.L. Marshall-Hall’s removal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to challenge Matthew Lorenzon’s contention that the late 1890s outcry demanding Melbourne University music professor G.W.L. Marshall-Hall’s removal from office was precipitated by his praise of war in an 1898 public address. It also disputes Lorenzon’s view that the belligerent, anti-philanthropic content of the address was inspired by Alexander Tille’s Social Darwinist introduction to four works of Friedrich Nietzsche which, Lorenzon says, Marshall-Hall had misread.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyses the speech and responses to it, comparing its content with that of the book and taking into account Marshall-Hall’s annotations and other relevant remarks. It also considers the broader situational context in which the speech was delivered with a view to identifying additional influences.

Findings

Despite superficial resemblances, Tille’s concern is with the physiological capabilities that determine the outcome of a universal struggle for physical survival, other qualities being important insofar as they contribute to such physiological power, whereas Marshall-Hall, driven by situational circumstances, focuses on contests for occupational pre-eminence in which physiology plays little part. While both men denigrate altruism they mean quite different things by it. Moreover, the speech had little to do with the ensuing furore, which stemmed primarily from offence caused by Marshall-Hall’s book of verse, Hymns Ancient and Modern. There is no reason to believe that he had misread Nietzsche.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to Marshall-Hall scholarship by arguing that the controversy was driven by purely local circumstances, not international debates about evolution.

Details

History of Education Review, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0819-8691

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1950

THE news that our royal President has been promoted to the command of a frigate sugges an increase rather than a relieving of naval duties. Our pleasure in the announcement is…

Abstract

THE news that our royal President has been promoted to the command of a frigate sugges an increase rather than a relieving of naval duties. Our pleasure in the announcement is qualified by the fear that the further demands may make his presence with the Library Association in September even more difficult than it seemed to be a month ago. This is pure speculation on our part, but we are aware of the eagerness with which librarians look forward to the central event of the Centenary Year. We are assured that the matter is in good hands and at the right levels.

Details

New Library World, vol. 52 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2006

Catherine J. Ashworth, Ruth Ä. Schmidt, Elke A. Pioch and Alan Hallsworth

This paper seeks to explore antecedents for online success and conceptualizes the stages by which a small‐sized “pure‐player” has achieved profitable and sustainable e‐retail in…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to explore antecedents for online success and conceptualizes the stages by which a small‐sized “pure‐player” has achieved profitable and sustainable e‐retail in the fashion sector by utilizing a multi‐niche strategy involving an e‐portfolio of five fashion‐related cyberstores.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative critical‐case utilizes the in‐depth interview technique and rich thematic data analysis to provide insight into e‐retail development, with conceptualizations inductively developed from the data. Findings are linked to business growth, e‐business strategy, portfolio management and entrepreneurship literatures.

Findings

Findings identify a staged, evolutionary approach to transactional cyberstore development and outline 20 key factors for e‐retail success. The “web‐weaving” process is conceptualized: this strategic “e‐portfolio management” approach identifies a multi‐niche opportunity for e‐retail, which spreads risk, maximizes revenue streams, utilizes knowledge economies/synergies across multiple‐web sites, promotes customer added value and offers potential for competitive advantage and sustainability for the smaller‐sized e‐retailer.

Research limitations/implications

This is an in‐depth study of a single, long‐standing e‐retailer maintaining superior retention levels across an international customer base. That this enterprise bucks current trends by surviving (when 75 per cent e‐retail ventures fail) adds validity to web‐weaving as a sustainability strategy. Future research should explore this phenomenon within a wider inter/intra‐niche context to further contribute to the enhancement of e‐retail strategic marketing/enterprise development.

Practical implications

Implications indicate that a (niche) e‐portfolio strategy is perceived as defensible, from an owner‐director perspective, for sustaining a fashion e‐retail enterprise. Targeting multiple‐niches via “web‐weaving” provides a clear route to critical‐mass and sustainability, which could prove a valuable lesson for many small e‐retailers – potentially providing a framework for internet‐strategy development in other marketing domains.

Originality/value

This research presents a rich picture of how an e‐retail enterprise, in a highly competitive/dynamic market, can develop and sustain transactional e‐business over the longer‐term – presenting obvious implications to SME retail/marketing management.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1989

Stuart Hannabuss

The management of children′s literature is a search for value andsuitability. Effective policies in library and educational work arebased firmly on knowledge of materials, and on…

Abstract

The management of children′s literature is a search for value and suitability. Effective policies in library and educational work are based firmly on knowledge of materials, and on the bibliographical and critical frame within which the materials appear and might best be selected. Boundaries, like those between quality and popular books, and between children′s and adult materials, present important challenges for selection, and implicit in this process are professional acumen and judgement. Yet also there are attitudes and systems of values, which can powerfully influence selection on grounds of morality and good taste. To guard against undue subjectivity, the knowledge frame should acknowledge the relevance of social and experiential context for all reading materials, how readers think as well as how they read, and what explicit and implicit agendas the authors have. The good professional takes all these factors on board.

Details

Library Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-5124

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 May 2010

Gary Blau, Jason Fertig, Donna Surges Tatum, Stacey Connaughton, Dong Soo Park and Catherine Marshall

Within the emotional labor (EL) literature, the paper's aim is to test for additional scale distinctions in surface acting and deep acting, using a “difficult client” referent.

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Abstract

Purpose

Within the emotional labor (EL) literature, the paper's aim is to test for additional scale distinctions in surface acting and deep acting, using a “difficult client” referent.

Design/methodology/approach

Working with existing definitions and operationalizations across prior EL studies, an on‐line sample of 1,975 massage therapists and bodywork practitioners (M&Bs) was used to test the hypotheses. Hinkin's recommended three steps for scale development: item development, scale development and scale evaluation were applied. The M&B sample was randomly split to carry out exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and then confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). A smaller validation sample of 203 working adults was also tested using EFA.

Findings

Convergent support was found for EFA between the M&B and validation samples, as well as between EFA and CFA for the M&B sample. Two types of surface acting could be distinguished, basic surface acting (BSA) and challenged surface acting (CSA), while three types of deep acting could be distinguished, basic deep acting (BDA), perspective taking deep acting (PTDA) and positive refocus deep acting (PRDA).

Originality/value

This paper studies a unique sample, massage and body therapists, and the “difficult client” stimulus has not been formally tested in prior EL scale work.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

1 – 10 of 393